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Rowley, James, m. a. 

... The sottleiiic'ut of the coiLstitution. 1689-1784 P.^ 

•^^,««^^l7-- With four maps. Ne^^' York Harper 
.^pr^lS^S. London, Lon^.ns. 1B77. ' ""^^P^"^ 

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NO. 93-81262 


as part of the 
"Foundations of Western Civilization Preservation Project" 

Funded by the 

Reproductions may not be made without permission from 

Columbia University Library 


The copyright law of the United States - Title 17, United 
States Code - concerns the making of photocopies or 
other reproductions of copyrighted material. 

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Rowley, James, m. a. 

... Tlio sottleiMciit of the coii.stitutioii. 1689-1784 Bv 
James Eowloy ... With four maps. Ne^v- York Earner 
&>othersy-1878. Lon<Ion, Lonraans. IQ77 ' -^^^P"^"^ 
vi« 109 . geneal. table. ' * 

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Madison Ave. and 49th Street, New York. 
Beside the main topic, this book also treats of 

Subject No. On page 

Subject No, On page 

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Epochs of English History 






.l>«)iri^,\VOOl)H AXU CO.. XE\V-STUi;i.l sQLAUt 









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!l 1877 

All rights reserved 







I. England and the Revolution .... 
II. Scotland and the Revolution .... 

III. Ireland and the Revolution .... 

IV. The Williamite War with France .... 
V. William III. and his Parliaments 









I. The causes of the War • • 

II. The War itself 

III. Constitutional History during the War .... 

IV. The Tory Ministry and the Peace of Utrecht 




I. The First Years of the House of Hanover 
II. The Ministry of Sir Robert Walpole .... 
III. The Pelhams ..,•■• 










CHAPTER ^ ' -^ / O/- 

I. How the War was brought about 
II. The events of the Seven Years' War 
III. The Rise of the English Power in India 


HOUSES (1762-1784). 

I. First Ten Years of George III.'s Reign 
II. George III. and Lord North 








1. The Low Countries, and neighbouring lands 

2. Scotland and North of England . 

3. North America and West Indies 

4. The East Indies . . . , 




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The chief aim of this little book is to show the following 
things : — 

1. How the Revolution of 1688 made the House of 

Commons the strongest thing in the State. 

2. How England engaged in a long and costly war 

with France, the greatest nation in Europe at 
that time, because the French king thought fit to 
meddle in her affairs, and how she won much 
fame and new lands thereby. 

3. How a new line of kings was set on the throne ; 

and how, during the reigns of the first two o 
these kings, the great families among the English 
nobility took to themselves the foremost place in 
ruling the country. 

4. How the rule of the great families broke down at a 

time when England was called upon to put forth 
all her strength ; and how the task of guiding 
the country through its troubles was given to a 
man of surpassing genius, who raised it to a height 

of greatness such as it had never before reached. 


r: ^ r 

Settlement of the Constitution. 1689. 

5. How a king came to the throne, who strove with all 
his might to beat down the strength of the great 
families, and win for himself some of the power 
which his forefathers had held ; and how, after a 
hard fight, he gained his object. 




I. In February 1689 the Lords and Commons asked 
William and Mary, Prince and Princess of Orange, to 



become King and Queen of England. 


Queen, 1689- 

William and Alary agreed to do so ; and at 
once the new order of things which is called 
the '■ Revolution settlement,' began. 

2. Though a good many changes in our 
rulers and ways of ruling have been brought about by 
force, the change made at this time is the only one 
' Revoiu- ^° which the name ' Revolution ' has been 
tion ' not a given. Yet it is not a good name. For the 
fo°r°the"change change, though it led to great things in later 
of 1688-9 times, w^as not itself a great one. The laws 
which were in force under William and Mary were not 
very different from those which ought to have been in 
force under James II. The rights of the people were 
much the same. The Declaration of Rights made 
nothing law that had not been law before. It only 
stated clearly, so that henceforth there could be no mis- 
tak about them, what the rights of the people were. 


1689. England and the Revolution. 3 

3. Yet the nation gained a good deal by the Revolu- 
tion, ^i) There was no longer as much quarrelling be- 
tween the king and the Parhament as there what the 
had been. Parliament now got the masterv Revolution 
in the State ; from this time it grew ever Engbnd. 
stronger, and the king ever weaker, until the king could do 
nothing which the Parliament disliked, and the Parliament 
could force the king to do anything it pleased. (2) The 
House of Commons became much more powerful than 
the House of Lords. All the money that was wanted for 
keeping up an army and a navy, or for any other public 
purpose, had first to be voted by the Commons. Thus 
the Commons were able henceforth to get anything thev 
greatly wished to have ; for, if the king or the Lords 
were unwilling to assent to what they asked, they had 
only to refuse to vote the taxes, and the king and the 
Lords had to assent. It is true that the king might still 
choose his ministers ; but, if most of the Commons did 
not like a minister, they could make the king send 
him away. Hence the king had to put into offices of 
State such men as the Commons wished to see there. 
(3) Though the laws were much the same, the way in 
which they were put in force was difTerent. Parliament 
made a law that the judges should stay in their offices so 
long as they gave just judgement. Before this the king 
could make and unmake judges as he pleased, and so 
they had been too careful to do his will. 

4. The parliament which gave the throne to William 
and Mary had not been called by a king, and was there- 
fore supposed not to be a true parliament, 
able to pass laws binding on the people. It 
was only named a convention. But it was 
thought dangerous to have a new parliament 
chosen while men's minds were unsettled ; and 
accordingly it changed itself from a convention to a parlia- 

E 2 

The Con- 
made a 


4 Settlement of the Cojistitittion. 1689. 

ment. It lasted a year longer, and did many things of 
great importance. 

5. The men who had been most helpful in bringing 
about the late changes did not all belong to one party ; 
William's some were Whigs, some were Tories. William 
first therefore wished to show no liking for W^higs 

more than for Tories, and took as his ministers 
men of all parties. Chief among these were the Earls of 
Danby, Nottingham, and Shrewsbury\ This plan, how- 
ever, did not work well ; and afterwards William had to 
choose his ministers almost all from the same party ; the 
Commons would not let him do anything else. 

Moreover the men who had been most helpful in bring- 
ing about the late changes were not all of the same way of 
thinking in religion ; many of them belonged to the 
Church of England ; many were Dissenters. It seemed, 
therefore, a fitting time to grant the Dissenters some 
relief from the harsh laws passed against them in Charles 
II.'s reign. Protestant Dissenters, save those who denied 
the Trinity, were no longer forbidden to have 
tion Act, places of worship and services of their own, 
Apnl, 1689. jf ^j^gy would only swear to be loyal to the 
king, and that his power was as lawful in Church as in 
State matters. The law that gave them this is called 
the Toleration Act. Men's notions were still, however, 
very narrow ; care was taken that the Roman Catholics 
should get no benefit from this law. Even a Protestant 
Dissenter might not yet lawfully be a member of either 
House of Parliament, or take a post in the king's service ; 
for the Test Acts ^ were left untouched. 

6. King William, who was a Presbyterian in his own 
The Com- land, wanted very much to see the Dissenters 
sctem^"^ won back to the Church of England. To 
tSSq. bring this about, he wished the Church to 
alter those things in the Prayer Book which kept Dis- 

1 See Epoch V., pp. 64, 68. 


Enoland and the Revolution. 





senters from joining with her. But most of the clergy 
would not have any change ; and because ^these were 
the stronger party in Convocation — as the Parliament of 
the Church is called — William could get nothing done. 

At the same time a rent, which at first seemed likely 
to be serious, was made in the Church itself There was 
a strong feeling among the clergy in favour of jj^g j^q„. 
the banished king. So a law was made by jurors, 1689. 
which every man who held any preferment in the Church, 
or either of the Universities, had to swear to be true to 
King William and Queen Mary, or had to give up his 
preferment. Most of the clergy were very unwilling to 
obey this law ; but only 400 were found stout-hearted 
enough to give up their livings rather than do what they 
thought to be a wicked thing. These were called nou- 
JurorSj or men who would not swear. Among ihem were 
five out of the seven Bishops who had withstood James II. 
only a year before. The sect of non-jurors, who looked 
upon themselves as the only true Churchmen, did not 
spread. But it did not die out altogether until seventy 
years ago. 

7. It was at this time that the names High-Church 
and Low-Church first came into use. The parties so 
called were of much the same way of thinking as High- 
Churchmen and Low-Churchmen are now. Another new 
name, which we shall meet very often, is also 
now first found in our history. Those who ites, 1689- 
wished to bring back James 11. were known ^^^' 
as yacobites (from Jacobus^ the Latin word for James) 
just as those who held to William were known as Wil- 
liamites. The Jacobite party were never strong enough 
to rise in arms during this reign ; but it was very rest- 
less, made many plots, and gave a good deal of trouble 
to the Government. Its great longing was to overthrow 
William by getting Lewis of France to send an army to 

6 Settlement of the Constitution. 1689-90. 

England. The English never cared much for William. 
He was a stranger ; his temper was gloomy ; he was 
Characters ^^^^ ^"^ distant with all save his old and 
of William tried friends ; and he took no pains to win the 

and Mary. i r ^i i 

love ot those who came near him. Mary's 
character was different ; she was frank, cheerful, and 
gay ; and her sweetness of temper and grace of manner 
did more at first to strengthen the new order of things 
than all her husband's wisdom and valour. But there 
was a good deal of mismanagement and wicked dealing 
among William's ministers at this time ; some men in 
office thought the new king and queen would soon be 
Unpopu- driven out of the kingdom, and eagerly filled 

wmTam's t^^^^ pockets out of the king's treasurv 
rule at first, whilst they had the chance. In this way the 
Government fell into disfavour with the people ; the 
Jacobites became every day stronger ; and before a year 
was over it seemed as if the Revolution Settlement would 
soon be all unsettled again by a second restoration of the 

8. Moreover, William was himself ill at ease in 
England. His Whig ministers quarrelled with his Tory 
William's ministers ; Parliament would not give him the 
dissatisfac- revenue which had been given to James H. • 
it would not settle the Crown, as William 
wished, on the Electress Sophia of Hanover in case he 
and Mary died childless. Nor would it agree to an Act 
for granting a full pardon to the agents of tyranny in 
the late reigns unless a great many men were shut out 
from its benefits. Early in 1690 the king is said to 
Revolution have thought of going back to Holland so 
d^iSdvTd"' little did he like the way the English were 
1690. treating him. However this may be, he 

deemed it impossible for him to get on with the Parlia- 
ment that then was ; therefore he put an end to it, and 



1689-90. England ajid the Revolution, j 

called a new one, which he hoped would be easier to 
deal with. 

9. But before this, two laws of great importance had 
been passed— the Mutiny Bill and the Bill of Rights. 
The Mutiny Bill gave the king power to put The Mutiny 
to death any soldier who deserted his ^^^^' ^^^9- 
colours or mutinied against his officers. At first it was 
very short, and was to have force for six months only ; 
but it has since grown into a kind of military code, and is 
passed from year to year. It has thus become a means of 
forcing the king to bring together Parliament every year. 
The Bill of Rights is little more than the The Bill of 
Declaration of Rights ^ turned into a regular Rights, 1689. 
law. There are two things, however, in it which are 
not in the Declaration : (i) it makes it impossible foi 
any King or Queen of England to be a Roman Catholic ; 
and (2) it settles that the Crown has no power of setting ^ 
aside a law in any case whatever. The Declaration had 
only said that the way in which James had used such a 
power was unlawful. 

But bitter foes rose up against the new settlement in 
Scotland, Ireland, and France. 



I. In 1688-9 Scotland and England were still separate 
kingdoms. The only bond of union between them was 
that the king of one country was also kin? of 

, , - , - _ England 

the Other. It was not therefore a matter of and Scotland 
course that when James II. ceased to be ^" ^^^9- 
King of England, and William and Mary were given his 
place in England, he should cease to be King of Scot- 

1 See Epoch V., p. 79. 

2 Ibid. p. -j^. 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1689. 

land also, and William and Mary be given his place 
in Scotland. It was for the Scottish people to decide 
whether they would follow the lead of England. But 
the bulk of the Scottish people were only too glad to get 
rid of the Stuarts. The Stuarts had tried to root out 
the Presbyterian religion, and had set up among them 
a Church which most Scotsmen disliked and many 
hated. In other ways, too, the later Stuart kings had 
The Scots deeply wronged the worthiest of their Scot- 
jamefiLf ^^^^ subjccts ; they had caused oppressive 

1688. laws to be made, and had dealt harshly with 
those whom they disliked or feared. As soon, therefore, 
as the Scots heard of the overthrow of James II.'s rule 
in England, they took up arms and frightened the Scot- 
tish Council into changing sides. Then many Scottish 
noblemen and gentlemen, who chanced to be in London, 
Scottish ^""^^^ together and asked William to assemble 

Convention a Convention of the Scottish Estates, and 

meets . 

March, take upon himself the rule of the country in 

1689. ^j^g meantime. William did both the things 
they asked ; and in March 1689 the Scottish Convention 
came together in Edinburgh. 

2. James had still some friends left him in Scotland. 
Chief among these was John Graham of Claverhouse, 
^ , ^ now Viscount Dundee, who worked hard to 

Graham of • i ^ 

Claver- make a party m the Convention m favour of 

°"^^' his old master. When he failed he rode away 

with fifty horsemen to his castle in Angus. The Estates 
at once went swiftly to work. They voted that James, by 
his acts of injustice and tyranny, had fore- 
faulted {foj-feited) the throne, and was no 
longer king, and agreed to ask William and 
Mary to become King and Queen of Scot- 
land. They also drew up a statement of the 
people's rights, which they called the Claim of Right, and 

William and 
King and 
Queen of 


Scotland and the Revolution, 

told the men whom they sent to offer the crown to William 
and Mary to take care that the new king and queen 
should promise to abide by this claim as long as they 
reigned. Tliis paper said that prelacy, or the rule of the 
Church by bishops, was unbearable, and ought to be 
done away with. In May the Scottish crown was offered 
to William and Mary on these terms. They agreed to 
them, and took the oath in the form which the Estates 
had approved of Thus a king and a queen who had no 
other title to rule save what Parliament could give them 
were set up in Scotland as well as in England. 

3. There were still Scotsmen who thought that the 
Estates had been over-hasty in what they had done ; and 
there were others who felt that James was still ^he High- 
their lawful king, and that they were bound to landers. 
fight for him at all risks. Most of the chieftains of the 
Highland clans were of this way of thinking ; and these 
men were able to do much mischief, for their clans- 
men were sure to follow them in any cause with dog-like 
fidelity. The Highlanders were a daring race, fond of 
fighting, often at war among themselves, and had usages 
and laws of their own. 

Many Highland chieftains now saw reason to take up 
arms for James ; and a war broke out which lasted for 
almost a year. It is true that the largest clan, 
the Campbells, whose chief was the Earl of out in Scot- 
Argyle, was loyal to William ; but most of ^^"'^' ^^^9- 
the other clans hated Argyle and looked upon his friends 
as their foes. As soon, then, as Dundee came into their 
country they at once gathered round him. He was just 
the man to lead them, being fearless and skilful, fiery in 
onset and wary ; and he was willing to let them deal 
with their foes their own way. In May 1689 some thou- 
sands of armed Highlanders came together in Lochaber ; 
Dundee put himself at their head, and civil war began. 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1689-90. 

4. To make head against this danger General Hugh 
Mackay was sent from Edinburgh with a few thousand 
Battle of soldiers. For a time nothing was done ; but 
hankie ^^^^ ^^ J^^^ Mackay led his army through the 

July, 1689. wild pass of Killiecrankie. He was making 
for the Castle of Blair in Athol, which had fallen into 
Dundee's hands. But Dundee was too quick for him ; 
Mackay's men had just reached the head of the pass, 
when, in the dusk of the evening, the Highland army 
came down upon them. There were only 2,000 High- 
landers against 4,000 trained soldiers ; yet so mighty was 
their rush that in a few minutes Mackay's army was 
broken in pieces. But a chance bullet smote down 
Dundee, and the cause of James gained nothing by the 

Less than a month later the shame of Killiecrankie 
was wiped away by the heroic defence of Dunkeld. A 
Defence of short time before, the Government had raised 
Au"ust^' a regiment from ' the wild western Whigs,' 

1689. ' who were such fierce Covenanters that many 
of them thought it sinful to fight for William, for 
in England William still upheld the bishops. This 
regiment was called ' Cameronian,' from Richard 
Cameron, a preacher who had been killed in the evil 
days. Sent as a garrison to Dunkeld, they held the cathe- 
dral of that place for four hours of the night against 5,000 
Highlanders, whom they beat off at last. But their com- 
mander, William Cleland, a very brave man, was killed. 
Next year the last remnant of the Highland army was 
caught sleeping, as it lay in Cromdale on the Spey, by a 

force sent from Inverness, and was easily 
wafend^, routed. This affair may be said to have ended 

1690. ^j^g ^y^j. jj^ ^^ Highlands. Forts were built 

to keep the clans in awe. Of these the strongest was 
Fort William in the west, named after the king. 


1690-92. Scotland and the Rcvolutiofi. 1 1 

5. Yet the clans which had taken part in the war 
still held aloof from the new Government ; and William 
found that other means than war was needed to bring 
them to put themselves under his rule. He sent money 
to be divideci among their chiefs, and let it be made 
known, at the same time, that he was ready to forgive all 
who would swear, before January i, 1692, to be foyal to 
him for the future. When that day came, it turned out 
that all had sworn but the Macdonalds of Glencoe. 
Their chief, Maclan, had put off taking the Massacre of 
oath until the latest day, and then, finding Glencoe. 
no one at Fort William who could lawfully 1692'^"'''^' 
give it to him, had to travel to Inverary in search of 
some one who could. Thus it happened that Maclan 
was not sworn until six days after the time fixed. Sir 
John Dalrymple, William's chief man in Scotland, wish- 
ing to strike a great fear into the Highlanders, whose 
lawless habits he hated, did not tell the king that Mac- 
Ian had come in at last, and got William to sign a warrant 
giving his Scottish ministers power to root out ' that sect 
{set) of thieves,' the men of Glencoe. Accordingly, in 
February 1692, a band of soldiers, led by Captain Camp- 
bell of Glenlyon, marched to Glencoe, and after having 
lived as guests among the Macdonalds for twelve days, 
fell upon their hosts before dawn one morning and 
shot down thirty of them. The rest of the tribe, hearing 
the peals of musketry, rushed out of their homes into 
the surrounding mountains, then deep with snow. It 
is thought that thirty more afterwards died of cold and 
hunger. It was a frightful deed, and William has been 
greatly blamed for it ; but it is hard to think that he 
looked forward to such a thing being done when he put 
his name to the warrant. Still when, some years later, 
the Scottish Parhament dragged the horrible thing to 
light, William did not punish as they deserved the men 

12 Settlement of the Constitution. ,688-9. 

who were chiefly guilty ; the worst of them, Dalrymple 

he only sent away from his service. ^ ' 

6. In the meantime the Presbyterian form of Church 

C™h\he'' '"","' "' ''''" '" Scotland and 
henceforth there was less religious strife than before 
The e„„,3 ,,.higs of the west were indeed angry becauTe 
the Covenant was not also set up again, but the bulk of 
the people were satisfied. 


what' tTf 1.°','°°,'' "" "^""^ '^"^^'■^"' '"■■" '" I^^'and from 
what they had taken m Scotland. In that country the 

Revolution led to a long and deadly war, in which neariy 
Eng^sh. '' '" '^ ^""'l"^^^^ °^^^ ^S-" by the 

Ireland, like Scotland, was in 1688 a separate kin<.- 
dom with a Parliament of its own. But, unlike Scotland, 
It was not free to act for itself; its Parliament could no 
do what It pleased, as the Scottish Parliament could ■ it 
was generally believed in England that Ireland ^as 
?rUh"str "°*'."S but an English colony, and that 
with James, "illiam and Mary became its king and 
.688-9X. queen when they were chosen to the English 

Most of the Irish people, however, wanted to keep 
James II. as their king, because he had the same faith 
as hemselves. But the English settlers, who were 
Protestants were afraid of being massacred, or at least 
of losmg their lands and powder in the country, if the 
native Irish got the upper hand. Most of these there- 
fore, would have no king but William, and taking up 


Ireland and the Revolution: 






arms, tried to hold out against Tyrconnel, James's deputy, 
until help should come to them from England. They 
were not very successful at first, and in the The English 
beginning of 1689 had only two strong places se"iers side 
in their hands— Londonderry and Enniskillen. William. 

2. In March 1689 James came to Ireland from 
France, and set about bringing the whole land under his 
rule. He called a parliament to meet him at 
Dublin, and then went north to join his army /oTeland,'^ 
which was marching to besiege Londonderry. '^^9- 
In this city were gathered many thousands of the 
English settlers who had fled from their homes through 
fear of the Irish. They were bent on resisting to the 
last, and would not listen to James, who offered to for- 
give them if they would yield at once. Thereupon 
James went back to Dublin ; and the siege of London- 
derry began. 

This siege lasted for more than three months. Some 
people look upon it as the greatest siege in British 
history. At first the Irish sought to batter 
dowTi the town with cannon ; but the men London- 
inside had made up their minds to bear any- ^^""y* ^^^9- 
thing rather than give way. Then Richard Hamilton, 
the Irish general, tried to take the place by storm ; but 
the men of Derry fought well, and Hamilton had to call 
back his soldiers. The Irish then waited quietly until 
want of food should force the townsmen to give in. At 
length, when all seemed over, three ships, sent from 
England, made their way up the river Foyle, on which 
the town is built, in spite of the Irish, and brought food 
to the starving people. Then the besiegers 
lost heart and marched away. About the Aulust!*^^^' 
same time not only was Enniskillen relieved, '^^9- 
but its defenders attacked a large body of Irish horse 
near Newtonbutler, and put them to flight. 


Settlement of the ConstitiUion. 1689-90. 

1690-91. Ireland and the Revolution. 


3. The war had now become one of races and reh- 
gions. Nearly all the Protestants distrusted James, and 
held to William ; and the Irish longed only to drive the 
Enghsh from the land, and get it to themselves. They 
did not care for James because he was their rightful king, 
Doings of but they fought for him because he was a 
Pariil^ent, RoHian Catholic, and because they hoped he 
1689. would give them the mastery of the country. 
It was patriotism, not loyalty, which made them join 
James. When Parliament met, it passed a bill for doing 
away with an Act of Settlement made in 1663, that is, 
for taking away from most of the English settlers the 
lands which that Act had secured to them. A cruel Bill 
of Attainder was also carried, by which 2,500 persons, 
whose names were given, were ordered to deliver them- 
selves up before a certain day, on pain of losing their 
lands and being put to death without trial. James did 
not hke either of these bills ; but through fear of dis- 
pleasing the Irish he agreed to them both. This did 
him much harm in England. 

4. Next year, 1690, William himself came to Ireland. 
Landing at Carrickfergus, he at once pushed towards 
William Dublin with 30,000 troops, many of whom were 
irefand" French Protestants, Germans, and Darfes. 
June, 1690. During the winter King Lewis XIV. of France 
had sent 7,000 French soldiers to aid James ; yet James 
did not feel himself strong enough to meet his son-in-law 
in the open field. He therefore posted his army, in 
number about 30,000, on the right bank of the Boyne, 
near Drogheda, and there awaited William's coming. 
But William, on reaching the place, sent a force to cross 
T5 ..T r I. the river six miles higher up. WHien James, 

Battle of the ...... ° ^ -' ' 

Boyne, fearmg that his retreat to Dublin might be 

July, 1690. ^^^j. ^^^ hurried with his French soldiers to 
meet this force, William led his main body across the 

river in front. The Irish horse fought well, the Irish 
foot badly, and William won the day. James fled back 
to France ; and William soon entered Dubhn, and put 
the power there into the hands of the Protestants.' Then, 
after taking several other strong places, he led his men 
to Limerick, which he thought he could take very easily, 
and so end the war. But there was a valiant Irish 
general inside the city, Patrick Sarsfield, who saved 
it for a time. Then William went back to England 
(September 1690). 

5. In June 1691 William's general, Ginkell, a Dutch- 
man, renewed the war by taking Athlone before the eyes 
of the enemy. Then following the retreating 

Irish he came up with them at Aughrim. Aughrim, 
Here took place the last pitched battle of this J^'^' ^^^i- 
war. The Irish were strongly posted ; and for a time it 
seemed as if they were going to win. But their general, 
St. Ruth, got killed by a cannon-ball ; one last fierce 
onset was made by Ginkell's men ; and the disheartened 
Irish broke and fled. In another month Ginkell was 
before Limerick, the last refuge of the native race. 
There was little hope of their being able to beat back 
their foes this time. A treaty was made in 
which the victors pledged themselves to let Limenck, 
the Irish worship God in their own way as ^^^• 
freely as they had done in Charles II. 's time, and to allow 
those soldiers of King James who had come from certain 
counties to keep the lands they had in the same king's 
reign. Many thousands of the Irish sailed away to 
France, where they entered the army of King Lewis. 
Ireland once more lay at the feet of the English. 

6. The treaty of Limerick was not kept, though 
William was eager that it should be. The Irish Parlia- 
ment would not be bound by it, and made law after law 
to take away utterly from the natives everything they 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1689. 

most valued. To Protestants only was given any power 
in the State ; and even those Protestants who dissented 
from the Church could not sit in Parliament or hold 
any place under the Crown. The law forbade Roman 
Catholics to send their children to schools of their own 
The Irish either at home or abroad, to buy lands, to vote 
penal laws. fQj- members of Parliament, to keep arms, to 
gain lands by marrying Protestant heiresses, or to inherit 
lands from Protestants. Roman Catholic bishops were 
to be banished from the country ; the priests then in 
Ireland were allowed to stay on giving in their names to 
the Government ; but care was to be taken that no others 
should come to the country. Every Roman Catholic 
was believed to be a rebel ; and Parliament wanted to 
make the whole Irish people Protestant. Thus the 
Revolution was far from being a blessing to the greater 
part of the Irish nation. 



I. From the summer of 1689 to the summer of 1697, 
England was waging a fierce and costly war with Lewis 
XIV. of France. In this war the English 
^^■Z^ spent more money and made greater efforts 
1689-97- than in any previous one ; but they could not 

help engaging in it. It was part of the price they had 
to pay for getting rid of the Stuarts and making their 
freedom safe. In 1689 they had to choose between a 
war with France or taking back James as their king. 

From his youth up William had been the steady foe 
of the French king. Lewis XIV. was a very unpleasant 
neighbour ; he had a large and well-trained army, and 


1689. The Williamite War ivith France. 17 

skilful generals, and often used his strength to seize 
lands and towns which belonged to Germany or Spain. 
•Once indeed (1672) he had sent an army into 
Holland ; and ever after William thought of hl S 
nothing so much as how to take away Lewis's ^^^^^ ^^^' 
strength from him. It was this deep feeling of dislike of 
Lewis, and dread that his power would do lasting harm 
to the other States of Europe, that made William wish to 
overthrow James II.'s rule in England. He knew that 
so long as James was king, England would not only take 
no part against Lewis, but might even help Lewis against 
William and his friends. He also knew that there was 
little chance of beating France in war if England stood 
apart. William was of course glad to be able to save 
English Protestantism and freedom ; but he wanted above 
all things to draw England into the Grand Alliance which 
Spain, Germany, and Holland had then formed against 
Lewis XIV. Lewis was well aware that this War with 
was William's aim ; he was afraid that, if \^\^^ 
England were added to the number of his ^lay, ^689. 
enemies, he might lose his lordly place in Europe. There- 
fore he determined to try and set James again on the 
English throne. Thus war with France came soon after 
the Revolution. 

2. In this struggle England had many allies— the 
Empire, Spain, Brandenburg (the Prussia of our own 
times), and even Savoy. This array of States ^he Grand 
against France was called the Grand Alliance. Alliance. 
But France was then so mighty a power ; King Lewis 
had so many and such good soldiers, and such wise 
ministers and able generals, that William with all his 
allies was not able to do him nearly so much harm in 
this war as he had hoped. Indeed, most of the battles 
in it were won by the French. One thing very much 
strengthened Lewis against William— every army that 

E. //. c 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1689-92. 

fought for him did what it was bid and at the time it 
was bid, whereas WiUiam could not always get the 
Spaniards or Germans to come to him just when he 
needed them. In this way Lewis was able to take for- 
tresses from William before the smaller armies that 
made up William's big army could be brought together. 

3. For the first two years William was so busy in 
England and Ireland that he had to leave the fighting 
on the Continent to others. At first things went ill with 
the English. Men in office and men in command were 
sometimes careless, and did not do their duty. Even at 
Battle of sea the English were beaten. The day before 
p.eachy ^|-^g battle of the Boyne the English and Dutch 
June,' 1690. fleets under the Earl of Torrington were 
attacked by the French admiral, Tourville, off Beachy 
Head, and were forced to flee. 

4. Two years later Lewis and James made a plan for 
landing an army in England, and beating down William 
Threatered in that way. They hoped that James's English 
invasion of friends would rise and join them, and that 
^^t""^^ even the English fleet would not fight against 
them. They had indeed good cause to hope that this 
would be so, for some of William's own servants had 
written to James promising to help him. One of these 
was the chief admiral of the English fleet, Edward 
Russell, who had first asked William to come to England. 
We may be surprised to learn this, but great men in 
England were then very base. They thought only of 
themselves, and were ready to join one king or the other 
according as each seemed likely to prevail. 

In May 1692 all was ready ; 30,000 fighting men, 

mostly Irish, were encamped near La Hogue 

L^ Ho?ue. in Normandy, waiting to be carried over to 

May, 1692' England. Tourville then sailed out with his 

fleet to meet Russell. The English and Dutch at once 

1692-97. The Williamite War with Pi-ance. 19 

closed with him ; they had more ships than the French, 
who got beaten and made for the land. Next day the 
victors gave chase, and falling on the French ships burnt 
or sank sixteen of the biggest of them. For a time 
there was no more talk of invading England. 

5 By land William was less prosperous. The year 
before he had lost Mons ; this year he lost Namur, and 
was defeated by the French general, Luxem- 
burg, in the hard-fought battle of Steinkirk. ISnkirk, 
But William was very skilful in contriving J"'^' ^^'^• 
that the loss of a battle should do the least possible harm 
to his army ; a few days after Steinkirk he had as strong 
a body of troops as before, and Luxemburg dared not 
try to follow up his victory. 

Next year William was again beaten. Luxemburg, 
with 80,000 men, caught him with only 50,000 near the 
little stream of Landen, and forced him to 
give battle. He stubbornly withstood the Landen,^ 
onsets of the French for a long time, but -^"^y* ^^93- 
had to yield ground at last. Again William soon filled 
up the gaps in his army, and the French gained little by 
their victory. 

6. In 1695 the fortune of war changed. Both parties 
had been much weakened by the struggle, but England 
less than France. Death, too, had carried wiiiiam 
off Lewis's great general, Luxemburg. Ac- ^^^^^^s 
cordingly when William laid siege to Namur 1695. '^' 
the French were unable to drive him off, and William 
took the place. This retaking of Namur was the finest 
thing William ever did in war. It was also the last thing 
he did. For, though the war lingered a while longer, 
nothing worthy of mention was afterwards done in it. In 
September 1697 peace was made at Ryswick. 

By the treaty then made Lewis promised to give up 
helping James II. to get back to the English throne, 

c 2 

20 Settlement of the Constitutiofu 1689. 

and also agreed to look upon William as the lawful King of 
England. It was not a peace for Englishmen to 
Ry'l.wlck, be proud of ; but at least it stopped a foreign 
1697- king from trying to thrust back upon them a 

ruler whom most of them did not want. 


I. Ar no time did Parliament gain so much that it 
was able to keep lastingly, as in William III.'s reign. 
One little fact is enough to show what a firm hold 
upon power Parliament got by the Revolution. During 
the seven years that went before the meeting of the Con- 
vention only one Parliament was called, and that one 
was not allowed to sit for quite two months ; whilst 
Why Par- during the thirteen years that followed six 
liament Parliaments were chosen, and not a single 

stronger. year passcd without the Houses being brought 

together, sometimes twice. Many causes worked to- 
gether to make this change, (i) The Commons took care 
not to grant so much money to the king personally as 
had been granted to King James, and to make their 
grants for a short time only, not for the king's life, as 
formerly. (2) The king's wars were very costly, and he 
had to ask at least once a year for a great deal more 
money to keep up his army and navy. (3) Instead of 
giving these moneys in a lump, Parliament appropriated 
the supplies— that is, settled the way in which they were 
to be spent, setting apart so much for one thing, and 
so much for another. (4) The Mutiny Bill, without 
which the soldiers and sailors cculd not be made to obey 
their commanders, was passed for a short time only, and 


1689-90. William III. and his Parliaincnts. 21 

Parliament had to be called together to renew it. (5) 
W^illiam had no right to be king save the right which 
Parliament had given him, and therefore could not 
afford to quarrel with it as the kings before him had 

2. Things did not go on ver}' smoothly between 
William and his parliaments. Now and then a bad 
feeling sprang up between them, and led more than once 
to a serious misunderstanding. Throughout his reign the 
Commons were bent on making their power felt by the 
king and his ministers. They looked into all the busi- 
ness of the State, forced the king to do many things 
w^hich he disliked, made him alter things which he had 
already done, and weakened his power in many ways. 

William did not yield to the Commons without 
making a stiff fight. It seemed to him hard that he, who 
had done so much for the people's rights, should have so 
many of his own rights taken from him. He would not 
consent to some of the bills which Parliament passed 
to lessen his authority. Thus he would not wiiiiam 
consent to a law for making the judges inde- ^"^^ j°- . 
pendent of him ; or to a law for keeping place- power. 
vien (men who held places under the Crown) out of the 
House of Commons ; or to a law for putting an end to 
every Parliament three years after it had been first called 
— the Triennial Bill, as its name was. Yet he was made 
to give way on each of these at some time or other, for 
there was a hne which W^illiam dared not pass. He 
never fully understood the temper of the English, and did 
not always act wisely. He was never altogether liked by 
any class of his subjects. 

3. His second Parliament did not cross him so much 
as his first had done. It gave him a fixed income of about 
1,100,000/. a year, part of it for life, part for four years. 
It was also generous in voting taxes to enable him to 

second par- 

The origin 
of the 
Debt, 1693. 

22 Settlement of the Constitution. 1690-94. 

put large armies in the field ; but in doing so was careful 
to see that the money raised was spent as it wished. 
William's Two of the plans it was persuaded to agree to 
are noteworthy. The Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer of that time, Charles Montague, who 
became in later days Earl of Halifax, finding 
the debts of the State growing bigger and 
bigger from year to year, thought of having a 
standing debt, and laid the plan before the Commons. 
They agreed to it ; and in this way the National Debt 
began. This is unlike other debts in that its interest 
only need be paid. When William died the National 
Debt had grown to 16,000,000/. The other plan was that 
a }5ank should be founded, which was to have certain 
powers of dealing in money on condition of lending the 
Government 1,200,000/. This was the beginning of the 
Bank of England (1694). 

4. WiUiam did not give his consent to all the laws 
that this Parliament passed. In 1693, ' The Bill for the 
frequent calling and meeting of Parliaments,' known as 
^ . . , the Triennial 13ill, fell throuirh in this way ; 

Triennial . .' .*^ ji-j 

Bill passed, but m 1 694 it was agam passed and laid 
^ ^'^' before the king. This time he agreed to it ; 

and henceforth until the reign of George I. no king could 
keep a Parliament longer than three years, no matter how- 
well pleased he was with it. 

A few days after this Bill became law, Mary the 
Queen qucen died of small-pox. She was a wise and 

Mary dies, amiable woman, much loved by her husband, 

JJecember, ' •' ' 

1694. who was deeply grieved at her death. In- 

deed she was a great loss to him, for the English people 
had always a kindlier feeling for her than ever they 
had for her husband, and their love for her strengthened 
William's throne. 

5. It is to this Parliament also that the Enghsh owe 






1694-96. William III, and his Parlialnents. 23 

the freedom of their Press. In 1694, the law which had 
hitherto made it unlawful for writings to be printed un- 
less they had been read and approved of by the king's 
licenser came to an end. In 1695 the Commons would 
not let this law be renewed. After this time ^^^ p^^^^ 
any Englishman might print or get printed becomes . 
anything he pleased. But the Courts might ^^^' ^^^' 
still punish a man very severely if he printed anything 
which the judges thought to be a slander upon the Go- 
vernment, for, until 1792, the law of libel was very harsh. 

6. With most of the four Parliaments that came after 
this one, William had a great deal of trouble. His 
ministers were not the same as at the beginning of 
his reign. Nottingham, and Danby were now gone, 
and their places had been given to Whigs. The wor- 
thiest of the Whigs was John Somers, Lord Keeper, who 
was the best lawyer then in England. But William had 
to change his ministers very often. The Commons would 
take a dislike to the highest among them, and would give 
the king no peace until he sent them away. The truth is 
that government by party was then just beginning. If 
most of the Commons were Whigs, they made Beginning 
the king choose his ministers from among goy^rn^" 
the Whigs ; if most were Tories, from ment. 
among the Tories. For the ministers could not get on, 
unless most of the Commons were ready to vote for what 
they wanted. 

7. In 1696 the law ^for regulating trials in cases of 
treason ' was passed. Men charged with treason had 
hitherto little chance of being found not guilty, so much 
against them were the rules that the Courts of Law fol- 
lowed in trying them. They could not have skilled law- 
yers to defend them ; those who bore witness in their 
favour could not strengthen their witness with an oath. 
The Act of 1696 did away with these unfair rules. 

24 Settlement of the Constitution. 1696-99. 

Henceforth men put on their trial for treason might 
have counsel to plead their cause, and were to have lists 
of the jurors and of the witnesses against 
Law of them given to them some days before the day 

^^^* named for their trial. Moreover, two wit- 

nesses were henceforth needed to justify a jury in finding, 
the accused guilty. 

8. The same year an association was made to pro- 
tect the life of King "William, like the one that was made 
Assassina- ^^ 15^4 to protect Elizabeth.^ Some wicked 
tion Plot men had bound themselves together to 
Association, murdcr the king near Turnham Green as he 
1696. ^^.^g riding home from hunting. This plot 
was found out, and the chief men engaged in it were 
tried and put to death. Then the Lords and Commons, 
all but a very few, of their own free will signed a bond 
in which they pledged themselves to stand by William 
against James and James's friends, and if harm befell 
William, to take signal vengeance on his murderers. 
Their example was followed by the country at large, and 
hundreds of thousands put their names to the associa- 
tion. It was a grand outburst of loyalty, and made it 
clear that the vast bulk of the people were not Jacobites. 

9. Yet for the rest of his life William had an uneasy- 
time in England. The Commons would have their own 
way in all things, caring little how much pain their doings 
gave to the king, (i) William knew that war with France 
must soon break out again, and wished a good part of 
the army to be kept up. But the Commons, especially 
the Tories, had a horror of standing armies, and voted 

that all the troops but 7,000 should be 

guards sent disbanded. They went further, and said that 
away, 1699. ^^ j,-^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ |^^^j. ^^ Holland his Dutch 

1 See Epoch IV., p. 72. 



1 699- 1 70 1 . William III. and his Parlialnents. 2 5 

guards, who came with him to England, and for whom 
he had a strong liking. William's feelings were deeply 
hurt, and he made up his mind to leave the kingdom 
for ever ; but from this purpose he was turned aside by 
the wise words and firm conduct of Lord Somers, who 
was then Chancellor, and would not put the Great Seal to 
the paper in which William gave up the Crown. (2) In 
the same way William was forced by Parliament to take 
back the lands in Ireland which he had granted to some 
of his friends. These lands had belonged to Irishmen 
who had fought against the English and so had lost them 
at the end of the Irish war. From the first. Parliament 
thought that these lands should be sold to help to pay 
the costs of the war ; and William had once promised not 
to do anything with them without first telling Parliament. 
Yet he afterwards gave them to his generals and ministers. 
The man who got the largest share was a Dutch- ,v„- 

. ° ° William . 

man, Bentmck, Earl of Portland, WilHam's forced to 
closest friend for many years. The Commons hS'^ants 
were very angry, and in 1700 passed a bill for o^^^nds. 
taking back these lands ; and to make sure that the 
Lords and the king would not refuse the bill, they 
' tacked ' it to a bill granting the king money, so as to 
make one law of the two things. The will of the Com- 
mons prevailed, such strength did ' the power of the 
purse ' give them. 

10. William and Mary had no children ; and in 1700 
the young Duke of Gloucester, the only child of Anne 
that lived beyond infancy, died. There was now no 
hope of there being anyone to inherit the crown by the 
Bill of Rights after the death of William and of Anne. 
In 1701, therefore. Parliament settled the 
crown on the Electress Sophia of Hanover, Settlement, 
and her heirs. Sophia was one of the children ^^oi. 
of that Elizabeth, daughter of James I., who in 161 3 had 



Settlement of the Constitution. 


married* the Palsgrave Frederick. She was chosen to 
come after WiUiam and Anne because she was the 
nearest to the Stuart hne who was a Protestant. The 
law that did this is called the Act of Settlement ; it gives 
Queen Victoria her title to the throne. Parliament in 
passing it tried to make the nation's liberties still safer. 
It was now made impossible (i) for any foreigner to sit in 
Parliament or to hold an office under the Crown ; (2) for 
the king to go to war in defence of countries that did not 
belong to England, unless Parliament gave him leave ; or 
(3) to pardon anyone so that the Commons might not be 
able to impeach him. 

11. One clause of this law brings before our minds a 
great change that had then taken place in the way of 
ruling the kingdom. By ancient usage the Privy 
Council was the body from which the king was bound 
to seek advice in matters of State ; but of later years 
the king had fallen into the habit of letting his leading 
,^^^ ministers only into his secrets, and a body 
Cabinet much Smaller than the Privy Council, 
^"^^^ ' called the Cabal or Cabinet, was gradually 

formed. But the Commons got uneasy about this new 
body ; it kept its doings carefully hid from every- 
one, and there was no means of finding out which 
of its members advised the king to any course which the 
Commons might think harmful to the country ; for the 
king's ministers had now come to be answerable to Par- 
liament for everything the king did. An attempt was 
made in this new bill to give back to the Privy Council 
all its old strength, and so check the growth of the 
Cabinet. But nothing came of it ; this part of the Act of 
Settlement was done away with in the next reign. 

12. The Commons were growing more and more 
unruly, when suddenly a foolish step taken by King 
Lewis delivered William from them. In September 1701 

* See Epoch V., p. 8. 

1 701-2. William III. a7id his Parliainaits. ly 

James II. died at St. Germains ; and Lewis took it upon 
him to publicly hail James's son, James Edward, as King 
■of England. This uncalled-for meddling in 
their affairs greatly enraged the English ; and dfeT,^sipt., 
William seized the chance of getting rid of his ^7oi- 
troublesome Parliament. He dissolved it, and called an- 
other. Most of the members chosen to this one were 
well-disposed to him, and wished to work heartily with him. 
There was now a general eagerness for war with France; 
and William set briskly about getting the nation ready. 
To tell the story of this great war, one of the greatest in 
our history, will be the chief task of the next book. 





I. The War of the Spanish Succession is so called 
because it was fought to decide who should succeed 
Charles II. on the throne of Spain. We might War of the 
think it mattered little to Englishmen whether '^P^'^"ish 

*u 1 • r o • A . Succession, 

the kmg of Spam was an Austrian or a French- 1702-13. 
man. But the chief desire of William's heart was to see 
England throwing all her strength into the struggle 
against the French king's greed. To gratify this desire 
he bore patiently with the unruly temper and thirst for 
power of many of his Parliaments, and allowed much of 
the royal authority to slip away from him. In the main 
he was successful ; owing to his eftbrts England won a 
place in the front rank of European Powers which she 
has never since lost. William made England feel that 



Settlement of the Constitution. 1698. 

she was concerned in everything which concerned the 
cause of hberty in Europe. 

2. Moreover, England's right of settling her own affairs 
without foreign meddling was at stake. Lewis XIV., as 
being an absolute prince and a Roman Catholic, had a 
natural feeling of enmity towards a free and Protestant 
State, such as England became after 1688. He hated the 
Revolution and longed to put it down. If he had been 
victorious in this war, doubtless the Stuart line would 
have been restored to the English throne. It must be 
borne in mind that after the passing of the Act of Settle- 
ment it became a necessary part of the new order of 
things, that the House of Hanover should succeed Anne 
in the kingship. The friends of the Revolution felt that 
all would be lost if this arrangement were not carried out ; 
therefore they pushed forward the war with France with 
the utmost earnestness. So that in fighting to place an 
Austrian prince on the Spanish throne the English were 
in reality fighting for what they most cherished — national 

3. The war came about in this way. Towards the 
end of the seventeenth century^, Charles II. of Spain 
The was clearly drawing near his end. He had no 
the^Spanbh children ; and his nearest of kin was the 
crown. Dauphin of France. Next in order of kinship 
came Joseph, eldest son of the Elector of Bavaria ; and 
after him the Emperor Leopold.^ But the dauphin's 

* Table showing the Spanish descent of the above-named persons : — 

Philip III. 

Philip IV. 


Mary Anne. 

Charles II. Maria Theresa= Lewis XIV. Margaret = Leopold, the Emperor. 

The Dauphin. Mary Antoinette = Elector of Bavaria* 

I I 

Philip, Duke of Anjou. Joseph, the Electoral Prince. 

1698-1700. The Cattses of the War. 


mother and Joseph's grandmother had, when leaving 
Spain, solemnly laid aside, for themselves and those who 
might spring from them, all claim to the Spanish crown. 
Nothing of the kind stood in the way of Leopold. It was 
the belief of some, however, that no one has power, by 
any words or acts, to bar his or her descendants from 
anything to which they may come to have a right ; and 
that, therefore, the dauphin's claim to succeed King 
Charles was still a good one. Yet it was certain that, 
however good his claim might be, the other European 
States would not stand still and see the almost boundless 
Spanish Empire— Spain, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the 
Spanish Netherlands, and the Indies — go to swell the 
dominions of the mightiest prince of Europe ; for the 
dauphin or his heir must sooner or later become king 
of France. On the other hand Lewis would be sure to 
oppose with all his power the union of the Spanish and 
Austrian dominions. William and Lewis at The First 
first thought it possible to settle the question ^^^e^'^^^" 
by a friendly arrangement. In 1698 they 1698. 
made a treaty — the First Partition Treaty, as it is 
<:alled— with each other. By this Joseph was to get the 
kingdom of Spain, the Indies, and the Spanish Nether- 
lands ; while some regions near the Pyrenees, Naples, 
and Sicily, were to go to the dauphin, and Milan to the 
Archduke Charles, second son of the emperor. This 
treaty might have saved Europe from war ; but a few 
months after it was made Joseph suddenly died, and his 
^eath spoiled the plan. 

4. The two kings then tried to hit upon a new plan. 
Early in 1700 the Second Partition Treaty was signed. 
By this the Archduke Charles was to have The Second 
Spain, the Netherlands, and the Indies; t^^^J'°" 
Milan — with power to exchange it for Lor- 1700. 
raine— was added to the dauphin's share. But this 

30 Settlement of the Constitution. 1 700-1. 

making of treaties all turned out wasted labour. Before 
the year was over Charles II. died, leaving by will Spain 
The Duke ^nd all the countries belonging to Spain to 
Ki>fgo? ^^^ D"^e of Anjou, second son of the 
Spain, 1700. dauphin ; and Lewis, in utter disregard of the 
treaty he had signed, accepted the bequest for his grand- 
son. Anjou at once became King of Spain as Philip V. 
Shortly afterwards war broke out between Lewis XIV. 
and the Emperor (lyoO- 

5. At first it seemed as if the King of England would 
have to look on and see the great game played out with- 
Th c ^^^ him. Parliament had grown angry about 

mons get the Partition Treaties ; and William dared not 
thf trea-°" even speak of war to it. Most of the Com- 
ties, 1701. mons thought that, in making those treaties, 
the King had shown small regard for English interests ; 
and, moreover, it was soon found out that they had been 
made in a way by which the rules of the Constitution had 
been broken. Throughout his reign William was his 
own minister of foreign affairs, and in arranging the 
terms of the first treaty had told no one of his English 
ministers anything about them. Somers, the Chancellor, 
had even put the Great Seal to a paper in which blanks 
were left for the names of the men who should sign for 
England. These and other awkward things came out ; 
Impeach- and the Commons straightway impeached 
ment of the Somcrs and three other lords. The king was 

vV hig ° 

Lords, 1701. SO disheartened by the turn things had taken 
that he recognised Philip as King of Spain. He was 
afraid the Commons would make him do this some time 
or other. The Lords, however, were not of the same 
mind as the Commons, and cunningly contrived that the 
impeachment of Somers and his friends should come 
to nothing. The feeling of Englishmen generally was 
rather in favour of the course which William desired to 

1 701-2. 

TJie Causes of the War, 


take, and soon the Commons themselves came to see 
that England must shortly join in the war. Then King 
James died ; and Lewis took the fatal step of putting 
forward James's son as King of England. The nation at 
large felt this to be a gross insult ; Tories and Whigs 
called loudly for war. The new Parliament passed laws 
of the utmost severity against the Jacobites, and heartily 
voted large sums for the army and navy. William went 
zealously to work to get the nation ready for the great 

6. But William's end was now near ; he did not even 
live to see war declared. Early in 1702 he was thrown 
from his horse and broke his collar-bone. He Death of 
had never been a strong man ; and of late his iY'"'t"'' 

,,-,,, . March, 

health had been growmg worse. His feeble 1702. 
body had not now enough strength to bear up against the 
shock. On March 8, 1702, he died at Kensington. He 
was but fifty-two years old. 

William was a little, meagre man, with a thin, worn- 
looking face. He talked little save to his closest friends, 
was seldom cheerful save in battle, had a blunt William's 
way of speaking, and cared nothing for lite- character, 
rature or art. But his heart was strong and tender ; he 
was borne away fainting from his wife's dying bed, and 
a lock of her hair was found over his heart after his 
death. He had some grave faults ; but on the whole 
his character was noble. He was the last of our great 



I. The Bill of Rights had settled who was to take the 
crown after William's death. Anne, second daughter of 


Settlement of the Coiistitution, 1702. 


The War Itself. 





The great 
Duke of 
b. 1650 ; 
d. 1722, 


James II., at once became queen. She was thirty-seven 
years old, and was married to Prince George of Denmark ; 
but she was childless, though she had borne 
many children. She was dull-witted, but kind- 
hearted, was easily led by anyone whom 
she trusted and loved ; but nothing could 
move her when her mind was made up. 
For many years after her coming to the throne, almost 
the whole power of the State was in the hands of John 
Churchill, whom Anne made Duke of Marl- 
borough. Churchill, the son of a Devonshire 
gentleman, had risen to wealth and honours by 
the kindness of James II., and had won fame 
as a soldier in the Low Countries and at Sedge- 
But in 1688 he deserted James, and did much 
to make his overthrow sure. He is charged with having 
been false to William also. William, however, forgave 
him, took him into favour, and marked him out for high 
command in the coming war. Marlborough was a 
general of wonderful skill, firmness, and daring ; he had 
a temper that nothing could ruffle, and a rare power of 
working upon the minds of men. But he was over-fond 
of heaping up riches, and is said to have cared little for 
anvthing but his wife and his own greatness. This wife, 
Sarah Jennings, was in many ways as remarkable as 
himself. She was a woman of great force of character 
and overbearing temper, but was deeply loved by her 
husband. Indeed her husband owed his greatness 
largely to her ; for Anne had from her early days been 
ver>^ fond of Lady Marlborough, and was always ready 
to do whatever she wished. That they might talk and 
write to each other with greater ease Anne called her 
friend Mrs. Freeman, and was in turn known to Lady 
Marlborough as Mrs. Morley. The Queen gave herself 

1 See Epoch v., p. 74. 



up altogether to her friend's guidance ; and in this way 
Marlborough became, on WiUiam's death, the most 
powerful man in England. 

2. Lord Godolphin, a wary and experienced statesman, 
was made Lord High Treasurer, then the highest'Minister 
of the Crown. Marlborough and Godolphin ^^^ 
were Tories, and put none but Tories into Ministry 
the other important posts. But after a time GodCfphin, 
a change came over their views. The Tories 1702-1710. 
were lukewarm in upholding the war ; the Whio-s 
warmly pressed it on ; and therefore Marlborough and 
Godolphin, who were all for war, kept drawing farther 
from the Tories and closer to the Whigs. Thus, as time 
went on, the Tory members were every now 

and then dropping off from the Ministry and dlred,^' 
the Whigs were joining it, until it became ^^^^' ^702. 
altogether Whig. Almost the first act of the new 
Ministry was to declare war with France. Marlborough 
was named Captain-General of the land forces. 

3. England had never yet engaged in a war that 
spread so far and wide over the earth as this one. It 
was carried on at the same time in the Low 
Countries, in Spain, in the Mediterranean Sea, theYow '" 
and in the West Indies. Its greatest battle Countries. 
was fought in Germany. But its chief scene of action 
was the Spanish Netheriands— the country that is now 
called Belgium— and the parts of France that lay near. 
The armies there were led by Mariborough. They were 
made up of men from many lands— English, Dutch, 
Prussians, and Hanoverians— all of whom cheerfully 
obeyed the great English general. 

4. No grand deed of arms was done by Mariborough's 
army for the first two years. The French stood on the 
defensive j and Mariborough was much hampered by tlie 

E. H. D 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1702-04. 

Dutch, who would not let him give battle when he 

wished. He had to rest content with taking several 

strongholds. But in 1704 the English captain struck a 

mighty blow at the power of France. Finding in that 

vear that the French and their allies, the Bavarians, 
•< .... 

were making alarming way 


the Austrians in 

South-western Germany, he marched his army from the 
Battle of Rhine to the Danube, and having joined it to 
Blenheim, ^^ Austrian force under Prince Eugene of 
i7o5" ' Savoy, came up with the French and Bavarians 

at Blenheim. There, on the banks of the Danube, was 
fought the battle which has shed its chief lustre on 
Marlborough's name. Tallard, the French marshal, had 
about 60,000, the Englishman about 50,000 men under his 
command. For a whole day the French held their 
ground manfully, driving back the Allies at almost every 
point. At last, in the evening, Marlborough led a ge- 
neral assault along the whole line ; the French army 
was cut in two, and utteriy routed. It was a crushing 
defeat ; almost two-thirds of the beaten army were killed, 
wounded, or made prisoners. Tallard himself fell into 
Marlborough's hands. The pride of Lewis XIV. was 

humbled at last. 

5. Ten days before the battle of Blenheim an English 
admiral gained a success which, though thought little of 

at the time, proved to be of vast importance. 
Early in August, Admiral Sir George Rooke, 
who had been cruising along the coast of 
the summer, and been able to do nothing, 
few thousand seamen and marines near 
Gibraltar, and took the place with the utmost ease. This 
fortress was kept by the English when peace was made ; 
and every attempt to wrest it from them again has utterly 


6. Next year Marlborough is again found warring in 

Taking of 
Aug., 1704. 

Spain all 
landed a 


The War Itself. 


the Low Countries ; and, though he could get no chance 
of winning a great battle, he managed to push 
the French hard. But in 1706 he again over- RamUlks, 
threw their armies, at Ramillies ; and nine of ^'^^^' ^7o6.1 
the strongest fortresses in the Spanish Netheriands were 
the fruits of the victory. Another year (1707) of com- 
parative inactivity followed. Then, in 1 708, a third grand 
victory was won, and the most skilfully-managed siege 
of the whole war brought to a triumphant close. For the 
French under the Duke of Vendome, having 
laid siege to Oudenarde, Mariborough fell upon Oudlnide. 
them and drove them from their position. He J^^^' '^oS.' 
then drew his army round Lille, perhaps the strongest of 
the strong places on the French border. The garrison 
of Lille was commanded by Boufflers, the general who 
had held Namur against William III. This 
siege lasted more than three months, and LUiltAug.- 
was watched with eager interest throughout ^^^'•> ^7o8. 
Europe. Prince Eugene pushed forward the siege, while 
Mariborough kept off the French army, which lay in the 
neighbourhood trying hard to relieve the place. In the 
end Boufflers had to yield. 

7. In the campaign of 1709 the great Duke won the 
last and bloodiest of his successes. The French Marshal, 
Villars, had entrenched his army at Malplaquet; 
and the allies had to carry by storm strongly MaipfaqLt, 
fortified heights held by 90,000 stout-hearted ^^p^' ^709. 
men. They carried them, but at a frightful cost— a loss of 
20,000 killed and wounded. The next two campaigns 
were not marked by any very striking event. But many 
towns were taken, and' France itself was invaded. The 
upshot of Marlborough's fighting was, that the French 
were swept out of the Netheriands, their] renown in war 
was lost, and their kingdom was drained of well-nigh all its 

D 2 


Settlement of the Constitntioih 1705-10. 


The War Itself, 


strength. Not often has a great nation been brought so 
low as France was in this war by Marlborough. 
But in 1 7 12 the great soldier was disgraced; 
and the Duke of Ormond was sent to take his 
command. How such a thing as this came 

to be done will be explained farther on. Ormond did 

nothing worth mentioning here. 

8. During these years the war was going on in Spain 

The com- 
mand taken 
from Marl- 
Jan. I, 1712. 

also. There the Allies were not so successful, perhaps 
because they had not a general like Marl- 
Spain,T702- borough to lead them. In Spain an effort 
'7^2. ^^.^g made to carry out directly the chief pur- 

pose of the AUies— to dethrone Philip and set up the 

Archduke Charles as King. And in 1705 the Archduke, 
calhng himself Charles III., went to the country under 
the guard of an English fleet. But most of the Spaniards 
favoured the French prince ; and Charles never had a 
chance of winning the crown in this way and keeping it. 
It is true there were some valiant deeds done by the 
English in Spain. In 1705 the Earl of Peterborough took 
Barcelona with a very small force, and marched hither 
and thither through the eastern provinces unchecked. 
And in 1706 the Allies, under the Earl of Galway, 
advanced from Portugal and entered Madrid. But 
Peterborough's strange career soon came to an end; and 
not only was Galway forced to leave Madrid, 
but in 1707 his amiy was destroyed. Yet this Aimanza, 
overthrow did not end the war in those parts. ^7°^* 
In 1 710 the French were beaten in their turn ; and the 
Allies a second time took possession of Madrid. Again, 
however, they found it necessary to march Battles of 
away from the place. As they were making Brihuega 

/•I , T- , 1 1 •■ IT and Villa 

for the east coast, the French, led by Ven- vidosa, 
dome, overtook at Brihuega their left wing, ^^^■' ^7io- 
which was English, and commanded by General Stan- 
hope. Stanhope's troops were surrounded ; and after 
some tough fighting had to surrender themselves pri- 
soners. Next day the other Allies were more prosper- 
ous at Villa Viciosa. Yet all they gained was freedom to 
go on to Barcelona. This was the last contest of the war 
in Spain. Already, in 1708, the English had 
conquered Minorca, an island which they Utrecht, 
afterwards held for seventy years. In 171 3 ^^^^" 
peace was made at Utrecht. 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1702-03. 

703-05. Constitntional History during the War. 39 


1. Of Anne's reign it may be said, as a general truth^ 
that in it the course of things which had been set going 
How Anne's Under Wilham went on without check. In 

feredfrom °^^ ^^^^ °"^^' ^^^ pubhc Hfc change after 
William's. William's death — there was less strife between 
Parliament and the Crown, and more between Whigs and 
Tories. Anne was an Englishwoman, a Stuart, and a 
sound Churchw^oman. The Tories therefore trusted her 
far more than they had ever trusted William, and did 
not seek to weaken the royal power any further. More- 
over the new settlement had seemingly been made safe ; 
Anne quietly accepted the position which the Revolution 
had given her, and so was allowed to enjoy a peace that 
had been denied to William. There was, however, great 
stir and noise in her time. Party spirit ran very high,, 
and Whigs and Tories strove with each other as they had 
seldom striven before. 

2. The Tories were not just of the same mind as they 
had been in the days of the Exclusion Bill.^ They did 
not now struggle to keep the Crown powerful with the 
same zeal as they had then shown. They not only 
accepted the arrangement made in 1688-9, but they up- 
held the authority of Parliament often with greater 
earnestness than the Whigs themselves. Traces of their 
old faith, it is true, might still be seen in them ; the>- 

would rather have Anne than William on 
the throne, because in her title there was 
something of hereditary right ; and those of 
them who went farthest in Toryism were apt to become 
Jacobites. But they mainly showed their Torj-ism by 

* See Epoch V., p. 69. 

Tories and 
Whigs in 



being great friends of the Church, and by disliking Dis- 
senters. They wanted to have all the power in the Com- 
monwealth given to Churchmen alone. The Whigs, on 
the other hand, wished to see all Protestants made equal 
under the law. Moreover, in Anne's reign the Whigs 
were very zealous for the war from first to last ; but the 
Tories both were not over-warm in its support at first 
and came to dislike it very much at last. 

3. The Commons in Anne's first Parliament were 
mostly Tories, and in their very first session carried a 
law which would have made it quite impossible for any 
Dissenter to hold a post under the Crown. But the Lords 
threw out this bill, for in those days most of the Lords 
were Whigs. The Lords, as having so much that might be 
lost by a violent change, are mostly in favour of keeping 
things as they are, and accordingly were then in favour of 
the Revolution Settlement, which they thought might in 
the long run be upset if the Tories always had Occasional 
their way. The aim of this bill was to prevent Bi'ir/ijoil^ 
occasional cotiformity , as the custom of taking 1703- 

the Sacrament according to the Church ritual, just to fit 
oneself for holding office, was called. Next year the Lords 
again threw it out. From this time the Tories lost ground. 

4. The war with France was a Whig war. It was 
waged to carry out the plans of William, who had become 
the great Whig hero, and sprang from the ThcW^higs 
Revolution, which had been a triumph of Whig JJJsteJ!^ 
principles. Marlborough's victories, therefore, 1705- 
spread a W^higgish feeling through the country ; and, in 
1705 a House of Commons was chosen in which Whigs 
had the mastery. What followed will show clearly how 
the new way of governing was likely to work. The 
Whigs were now so strong that the Ministry could not get 
on without them. To win them to his side Marlborough 
had to promise to get one of their leading men, Charles 


Settlement of tJie Constitution. 1700-08. 

Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, raised to some high office. 
But Anne liked the Tories better than the Whigs ; she 
thought she had a right to choose her own Ministers, and 
for a time would not hear of a place being given to 
Sunderland, though he was the husband of Marlborough's 
daughter. Marlborough knew how necessary it was that 
what the Whigs asked should be done, and eagerly 
pressed it on. But the queen was most unwilling, and 
yielded only to Marlborough's earnest prayers. In De- 
cember 1706 Sunderland was made Secretary of State. 
In 1708 the same struggle took place again on a 
larger scale. The general election of 1708 having again 
given the W^higs a majority in the Commons, the other 
„, ,,. . Whicr leaders — the Whig Junto, as they were 

The jNIinis- » o j ; .? 

try be- called, of whom the Lords Somers and Whar- 

aitogether ton wcre the chief — demanded to be taken 
Whig, 1708. into the Government. Marlborough, knowing 
the disHke of Anne to the Whigs, held out for a long 
time against them ; but they made things so unpleasant, 
and there was so much dread that they would use their 
strength to work mischief to the Queen's friends, that 
Anne had at last to give offices to Somers and Wharton. 
Then the Ministr>^ became purely Whig. 

5. The most noteworthy change of Anne's reign was 
the Union of England and Scotland, the blending together 
of the two kingdoms and two parliaments into 
ancf Scot- the Kingdom and Parliament of Great Britain, 
land, 1700. When one looks at what was then going on in 
the two countries one is rather surprised that such a good 
thing should have been brought about at that time. For 
never since Englishmen and Scotsmen had fallen under 
the sway of the same king had Scottish hearts been so 
filled with rage against England as in the first few years 
of the eighteenth century. England, the Scots said, 
was working them great and lasting wrongs ; and they 



1 700-04. Constitutional History during the War. 41 

would never forgive her. There was too much reason for 
what the Scots said. Many Englishmen were very selfish 
and greedy, and could not bear that their kinsfolk in 
Scotland and Ireland should share in the pursuits which 
brought them wealth. These men, merchants of the 
great seaport towns of England, had so worked upon 
Parliament that heavy taxes were laid on all products of 
Scotland which were carried into England. Scotsmen 
were not allowed to trade with any country belonging 
to England, or with England in anything but what was 
grown or made in Scotland. Their anger at finding 
their hands tied up by English greed was yearly growing 
more bitter. In 1 699-1 700 a plan which they had tried 
to carry out, for planting a trading settlement 
at Darien had come to a disastrous end. Its Scheme, 
failure brought ruin on a vast number of Scot- 1699-1700. 
tish families. The Scots cast the blame on the English 
East India Company and on King W^illiam ; and their 
wrath against England rose higher than ever. After 
W^illiam's death the Scottish Parliament passed an Act 
ot Security, by which it was made impossible 
that the same person who had already been Security, 
chosen to sit on the English throne after Anne ^^°^' ^7°"^' 
died should be chosen to the Scottish throne also, unless 
security were given for the ^ religion, freedom, and trade ' 
of the Scots. This law made it possible that at Anne's 
death the two kingdoms should pass to different kings. 

6. To the danger arising from this state of things we 
owe the Act of Union. The wiser men in England now 
saw clearly that nothing short of a thorough blending of 
the two peoples into one would put a stop to their quar- 
relling, and, to gain this, were willing to give the Scots 
all they wanted. The very last paper that William signed 
was a message to his English Parliament asking it to 
consider how such a union could be brought about. 



Settleme7it of the Constitution. 1 707-1 710. 

Act of 

In Scotland, 
Jan. 1707 ; 
in England, 
Mar., 1707. 

Parliament did look into the question, and gave the 
Queen power to name men who might meet other men 
sent from Scotland, and with them try to find out a way 
of uniting the two countries. But the trading jealousy 
of many Englishmen and the blind patriotism of many 
Scotsmen made the task of arranging the terms very 
hard ; and this attempt failed. The plan, however, was 
not lost sight of ; some Scotsmen longed for freedom of 
trade; the wisest English statesmen were afraid of Scot- 
land falling again under French influence. In 1706 there 
was a meeting in London of thirty-one men from each king- 
dom ; and these at last found a way to a settle- 
ment of the question. By the Act of Union 
Scotsmen were to have the same freedom of 
trade as Englishmen ; the Presbyterian Church 
was secured to Scotland ; there was to be but 
one Parliament for Great Britain, to which Scotland was to 
send forty-five Commons and sixteen Lords. For a long 
time many Scotsmen talked of this law as if it were the 
ruin of their country ; but it has undoubtedly done much 
good to both nations. 

7. In 17 10 the Whig Ministry fell from power. It 
had foolishly made the Commons impeach a noisy High 
Church clergyman, called Sacheverell, who had preached 
against Godolphin, and misrepresented the Revolution. 
The Lords found Sacheverell guilty ; but the trial stirred 
Fall of up a mighty outburst of High Church feeling 

Minfit^^^"^ throughout the country. The people too were 
1710. growing rather wear>' of the war, and of the 

heavy taxes which they had to pay to keep it going. 
Marlboroucrh also had lost the Queen's favour. His wife 
was a woman of violent temper and overbearing ways, 
and in her rages did not spare the Queen herself A 
coldness had grown up between the two old friends. The 
Duchess never tried to soothe the Queen's wounded 

1 710. TJic Tory Ministry and the PeacC. 43 

feelings ; and the breach between them went on widen- 
ing until at last Anne had come to hate her friend as much 
as she had formerly loved her. One Mrs. Masham, once 
a bedchamber-woman to the Queen, had already taken 
the Duchess's place in Anne's affections. The upshot of 
these changes was, that in the summer of 17 10 TheHariey- 
the Queen sent away her chief Whig Ministers, Mimsu" 
and gave the guidance of the nation to 1710-1714 
Robert Harley and Henry St. John. 



1. This daring act of Anne's — the turning away of 
her Ministers— helps us to see plainly the working of the 
altered Constitution. The Whig leaders had Party go- 
been able to win office in 1708 merely because ^emment. 
most of the Commons thought as they did, and were 
ready to vote as they wished. The Queen had now a 
strong hope that the members of the. new Parliament 
would be mostly Tory ; and, relying on that hope, had 
sent away her Whig Ministers and taken Tories in their 
places. She was not disappointed ; most of the new 
members ixjere Tories ; and she was able to keep Harley 
and St. John. But it is certain that, if it had turned out 
otherwise, she could not have kept these Ministers, and 
would have been forced to bring back Godolphin, Somers, 
and Halifax. 

2. Harley, who was made in 1711 Earl of Oxford, and 
St. John, who was made in 171 2 Viscount Bolingbroke, 
ruled England for nearly four years. During 
this time the war of parties never ceased. 
The great writers of the day took part with one side or 

Party strife. 


Settlement of the Constitution . 1 7 1 1 . 

the other, each doing his utmost to make people beheve 
that his party was right and the other wrong. The 
stoutest champion of the Tories in this way 
AddLon; was Jonathan Swift, better known as Dean 
Steele. Swift, because in 171 3 he became Dean of St. 

Patrick's Church in Dublin. Swift had once been a 
Whig, but in 17 10 had gone over to the Tories. He 
wrote for the Tories with all his might ; and being the 
greatest genius then living, did a great deal by his writ- 
ings to spread a Tory feeling throughout the country. 
The ablest writers on the Whig side were Joseph 
Addison, a most graceful author and amiable man ; and 
Sir Richard Steele, an honest but somewhat hot-headed 
Irishman. Men had not then the same means of reading 
speeches made in Parliament as they have now, for it 
as very difficult to get any account of a Parliamen- 


tary debate, and unlawful to print it if it were got. 
Yet even then it was an important thing for a states- 
man to be thought well of by the people ; and the only 
way he had of winning a good name was either to 
write himself, or to get others to write, in favour of his 

3. The clergy and the country gentlemen were zealous 
for the Tories ; the large towns and trading classes 
heartily upheld the Whigs. The Tories 
charged the Whigs with trying to destroy the 
Church ; their cry was that the * Church was 
in danger.' The Whigs charged the Tories with wishing 
to undo the Act of Settlement ; their cry was that * the 
Protestant succession was in danger.' Whilst Anne 
lived the Tories were the stronger party, for most 
Englishmen loved the Church and sent Tories to Parlia- 
ment. There was, it is true, no general desire for a second 
Restoration ; but the country thought there was little fear 
of this, and the cry of the Whigs did not frighten them. 

The Whigs 
and the 

peace of 
Utrecht wa 

171 1 13. The Tory Ministry and the Pead'c. 45 

4. But the point that Whigs and Tories fought most 
about was the making of peace with France. The 
Whigs wanted the war to go on until Philip ^^^ ^^^ 
should be driven from the throne of Spain 
and King Lewis should grant all that the 
Allies asked. The Tories wanted to have the 
war ended at once, and were willing both to allow Philip 
to stay on the Spanish throne and to let Lewis off very 
easily. The Whigs said that if the Kings of France and 
Spain both belonged to the same family they would 
always take part with each other in wars, and it would 
not be easy for the other States to hold their own against 
them. The Tories said that if Charles became King of 
Spain the House of Austria would be as dangerous to 
the quiet'of Europe as the House of Bourbon, for in 17 11 
Charles had been chosen Emperor. The Tories, too, 
were against the war, because it was a Whig war, and 
success in it had always given strength to the W^higs. 
They resolved, therefore, to have peace. But they went 
about getting it in a very bad way. Some years before 
Lewis had become so humble from the many beatings 
his armies had got that he offered not only to cease help- 
ing his grandson, but also to supply the Allies with money 
to wage war against him. These offers had not satisfied 
the Allies ; the war had gone on, and many more losses 
had befallen Lewis in it. But now Harley and St. John 
secretly sent a messenger to Lewis to ask if he would 
agree to a peace. Peace was the thing that Lewis longed 
for most ; but finding that the English Ministers also were 
so eager for it, he did not now offer to yield what before 
he had been willing to yield. His grandson, he now said, 
must be left on the Spanish throne. There was much 
stealthy going to and fro of messengers between England 
and France ; and at length the rulers of the two nations 
came to an understanding with each other. But not a 



Settlement of the Constitution. 


word of these doings was told to the Dutch or the 
Emperor, though as the alhes of England they had a 
right to know everything that was going on. And when 
at last the English Ministers did tell the Dutch, they 
showed them a different treaty from the one that had 
been drawn up by them and Lewis. In 17 12 they took 
away the command of the army from Marlborough, 
sfiparated the English army from the Allies, and privately 
settled with Lewis a plan for carrying on the war that year. 

5. Next year the Peace they so wished for was signed 
at Utrecht. Philip was to keep the Spanish throne, but 
Terms of the was to swear that he gave up all claim ever to 
utrech°^ become King of France. Lewis XIV. pledged 
1713- ' himself to have nothing more to do with 
James Edward, now known in England as the Pretender, 
and to recognise the Protestant succession to the English 
Crown. England was to have Gibraltar, Minorca, and 
Newfoundland, and trading rights with the Spanish 
settlements. The Dutch were given a strong line of 
fortresses to guard their border ; and the House of 
Austria got the Spanish Netherlands and Naples. This 
has been called ' the shameful Peace of Utrecht,' partly 
because of the way in which it was made, and partly 
because nothing was done in it to save the Catalans from 
the vengeance of Philip, though these had risen in arms 
at the bidding of the Allies. 

6. Anne lived little more than a year longer. This 
was a very anxious time for Englishmen. The Queen's 
Th 1 health was bad. Oxford and Bolingbroke 
year of were thought to be planning to overthrow 
Veign,^ the Act of Settlement and bring in the Pre- 
1713-14- tender. The Jacobites were believed to be 
busy laying plots for having James Edward made King 
when Anne died. The Tories had seemingly the greater 
number of the people on their side, for in 1713 a new 



1 714. The Toiy Ministry and the Peace. ' 47 

Parliament was chosen, in which most of the Commons 
were again Tories. But one thing crippled the strength 
of their party very much— their chief men, Oxford and 
Bolingbroke, had come to hate each other, and very often 
had angry quarrels. In July 17 14 Bolingbroke con- 
trived to poison the Queen's mind against his rival, and 
Oxford was turned out of office. But it was 
too'late for Bolingbroke to gain anything by dSsTAugu"t 
the change ; three days later Anne died. The '' ^^h- 
day before her death she had named the Duke of 
Shrewsbury, a nobleman who had been active in brino-- 
ing about the Revolution, Lord High Treasurer. Shrews- 
bury was a Whig ; and his appointment was a kind of 
pledge that plots to bring back the Pretender, if there 
were such, would be crushed. 





I. The Electress Sophia had died two months before 
Queen Anne ; and the right of succession to the English 
Crown had then passed to her son, George, Elector of 
Hanover. Accordingly on August i, 17 14, 
George became King of England as George 1. Kingf^ 
Much fear had been felt throughout the countr>^ 1714-27. 
that the Jacobites would try to hinder his coming to the 


48 Settlement of the Constitution. 1714-15- 

throne ; but it turned out quite othenvise— no one dared 
even to raise his voice for the Pretender. Indeed, most 
people showed great joy when they heard the new king 
proclaimed. In foreign lands also George was looked 
upon as the true King of England ; even Lewis of France 
kept the promise that he had made in the Treaty of 


2. George came to England about seven weeks after 
Anne's death. As soon as he came the Tory Ministers 
Whig were sent away, and their places given to 

Ministry Whigs. For George did not try, like William, 

^x^^- ' to allow each party a share in governing ; he 

thought that the Whigs, who had always been in favour 
of his title, were likely to be more faithful to him than 
the Tories. Of course, if the Commons had wished very 
much that the Ministers should be Tories, they would 
have made the King take Tories. But the new House of 
Commons, which was chosen a few months afterwards, 
had many more Whigs than Tories, and the King was 
able to keep the Ministers he liked. The foremost man 
in the new Ministry was Charles, Lord Townshend ; but 
General Stanhop j and Robert Walpole were also very 
powerful members of it. W^alpole had rare skill in 
finding out the best way of settling questions about 
money, and thus made himself very useful to his party. 

3. In 17 1 5 the quiet of the land was broken in two 
ways. First, the new Ministers were so angry at what 
had been done during the last four years of 
Iiiniifr^ Anne's reign that they stirred up Parliament 
attacked. .^o take Steps to punish the fallen leaders 
of the Tories. They tried to make out that Oxford, 
Bolingbroke, and Ormond had been guilty of treason in 
yielding up to Lewis in the late war more places than 
they need have done. Bolingbroke and Ormond fled to 
France ; but Oxford was not easily frightened, and stayed 

1715. First Years of House of Hanover. 49 

at home. They were all impeached ; and bills of at- 
tainder were also passed against Bolingbroke and 
Ormond. Oxford was sent to the Tower, where he lay 
for two years. In 171 7 he was brought to trial ; but in 
the meantime Walpole had fallen out with the other 
leading Whigs and lost office ; and now, to spite his old 
friends, he cunningly contrived that the Commons should 
not come fon^'ard to prove the charges they made against 
Oxford. The Lords, therefore, voted that Oxford was 
not guilty. Bolingbroke, soon after reaching France 
openly joined the Pretender, but in a short time gave up 
his cause as hopeless ; and in 1723 he was allowed to 
come back to England. But Ormond never came back ; 
he died abroad in 1745. 

4. Secondly, there were Jacobite risings both in Scot- 
land and in England. Early in September John Erskine 
Earl of Mar— who some years before had been The jaco- ' 
a Whig and helped to bring about the Union ^'^^^ take 
—raised the standard of rebellion in Braemar, 7^^^s^^' 
and in a short time found himself in command of a large 
Highland army. But Mar was very slow in his move- 
ments, and lingered for six weeks in Perth. The Duke 
of Arg>4e, famous as both a warrior and a statesman, was 
sent from London to deal with this danger ; and goino- 
to Stirlmg, used the time which Mar was wastino- in 
gathermg round him soldiers and loval Lowlanders. " 

While things stood thus in the far north a few hundred 
Jacobites took up arms in Northumberland under Mr 
Forster and Lord Denventwater. Joining with some 
Southern Scots raised by Lord Kenmure, and some 
Highlanders whom Mar had sent to their aid, they 
marched to Preston, in Lancashire. 

The fate of the two risings was settled on the same 
day. At Preston the English Jacobites and their Scottish 
allies had to give themselves up to a small body of 

E.H. E 

i..^.m^.,^, ■— -^ i fti P-. '■ f , 


Settlement of the Constitution. 171 5-16. 

Affair of 

Fi?ht at 



soldiers under General Carpenter, At Sheriffhiuir, about 
eight miles north of StirHng, the Highlanders, whom 
Mar had put in motion at last, met Argyle's 
little army in battle, and, though not utterly 
beaten, were forced to fall back to Perth. 
There Mar's army soon dwindled to a mere 
handful of men. Just when things seemed 
at the worst the Pretender himself landed in 
But he altogether lacked the daring and 
high spirit needful to the cause at the time ; and his 
presence at Perth did not even delay the end, which 
was now sure. Late in January 1716 Argyle's troops 
started from Stirling northwards ; and the small High- 
land force broke up from Perth and went to Montrose. 
Thence James Edward and Mar slipped away unnoticed, 
and sailed to France ; and the Highlanders scampered 
oft to their several homes. Of the rebels that were taken 
prisoners about forty were tried and put to death ; and 
many were sent beyond the seas. Derwentwater and 
Kenmure were beheaded ; the other leaders of rank 
either were forgiven or escaped from prison. 

5. These risings were followed by an important 
change in an important law. The people were in a rest- 
less state ; and it was feared that trouble might 

Act passed, befal the country if a new Parliament were 
'7' 6. chosen which would be unfavourable to the 

Ministry. A bill was therefore passed to enable the King 
to keep the same Parliament for seven years ; and in 
passing it care was taken that it should apply to the Par- 
liament that then was, which thus might last till 1722. 
This bill, which is called the Septennial Act, is in force 

6. The Whigs now became stronger than ever. But 
shortly afterwards Townshend and Stanhope quarrelled 
upon a grave question of foreign policy ; and a split took 



1717. First Years of House of Hanover, 5 i 

place in the Whig party which weakened it much for 
a time. Townshend and Walpole not only 
ceased to be Ministers, but also did their ScMsm!"^ 
utmost to thwart Stanhope and Sunderland, '717- 
Avho now held the first place in the King's counsels. 

The question about which the Whig leaders fell out 
was the right way of forming the Triple Alliance. This 
treaty, which England, France, and Holland 
made with one another in 1716-17, gave Imancef'^ 
England great power abroad, and did much ^716-17.' 
to strengthen the hold of the Hanoverian family on the 
English Crown. It seems strange to find the rulers of 
England and France, who had lately been such deadly 
foes, now linked together in a close friendship. But each 
liad an interest in making a friend of the other. In 
France Lewis XIV. had died ; his great-grandson, a mere 
child, had become King ; and the Duke of Orleans, who 
was next heir to the crown if the King of Spain should 
h)e true to the pledge he had taken by the Treaty of 
Utrecht, held the Regency. But the Duke feared that 
the Spanish king would not keep his promise, and 
thought it would be a good thing to have England on his 
side, to help him if the boy-king died. In England, 
Stanhope felt that France was the only foreign state that 
could give any real aid to the Pretender, and thought it 
would be a good thing if France could be brought to take 
part with the Hanoverian family. Thus it came about 
that an alliance was made between the two countries, by 
which their rulers agreed to stand by each other in any 
troubles that might arise. The Dutch also afterwards 
signed this treaty (January 1717). 

7. This alliance gave England and France a proud 
position in Europe. It was now the aim of Stanhope and 
Orleans to make the other nations abide by the terms of 
the Peace of Utrecht. They would not let the quiet of 



ends, 1720. 

' ^2 Settlement of the Ccmstitution. 171S-21. 

Europe be broken by any country. In 1718 the Empero 
Charles joined the Alliance, for the King of Spain wanted 
to take Sicily from him, and sent an army thither for the 
purpose. Thereupon an English fleet under Sir George 
Cap? °^ ^^'"^ attacked the Spanish near Cape Passaro, 
Passaro, ^"^ ^^^at it thoroughly. Next year (17 19), 

'718. French and English armies began to make 

war in the North of Spain, and took some strong places 
Then King Philip yielded, and consented to a peace in 
which he gave up everything that he had laid claim to 
(1720). From these things we see how mightv Encrland 
nad become. 

8. For a time all went well at home also. In 1720 
Stanhope made up his quarrel with Townshend and 
Walpole, and the Whigs became a united 
party once more. For Walpole had shown 
how dangerous he might be, by causing the 
Commons to throw out the Peerage Bill, which Stanhope 
wished to see passed. This was a bill for taking away 
from the King the power of making any more peers than 
SIX over the number that then was. Townshend and 
Walpole again became Ministers. But soon 
after their return to office there came a 
time of great distress for many people. Some 
years earlier a company had been founded 
for trading with the South Seas. It grew and 
prospered ; it often had dealings with the 
Government, nnd in 1720 its shares had risen to ten times 
their original value. An eager desire to get rich very 
fast then spread throughout the countr>' ; a great many 
other companies were set up ; and men bought shares 
in these greedily and thoughtlessly. Soon a change of 
feeling came ; men got frightened about the money they 
had laid out in this way, and all tried at once to sell 
their shares, but no one was willing to buy them. Hence 

The Peer- 
age Bill, 



■""t^frmwT[r"i i iri-r -i r i . ': 



1722. First Years of House of Hanover. 53 

not only did the new companies fail, but the South Sea 
shares also fell very low. A loud cry of distress was 
raised by those who had lost their money ; and all men 
were deeply enraged when they heard that some of the 
Ministers had taken bribes from the South Sea Company 
In the midst of this trouble Stanhope suddenly 
died. It was thought that Walpole was the FtSho^. 
only man who knew how to help the people '^^'' 
in this misfortune ; so he was made Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. He carried laws through Parliament which 
did much to calm men's minds and revive their faith 
in one another's honesty. The nation then saw that 
^ alpole was the ablest man the King had ; and upon 
the death of Sunderland, in 1722, Walpole became 
Prime Minister. 



I. Robert Walpole was a Norfolk squire of good 
family, who had gained sound judgment and rare skill in 
the conduct of affairs. He was clear-headed Robert 
and practical, and was just the man that Encr- Walpole .- 
land wanted at this time. A calm had fot d." %ti 
lowed the great storms caused by the Revolution, and 
the country felt a general longing for a little rest. Now, 
VV alpole wished above all things to give the 
nation rest. He tried with all his might to c'hS/ 
l^eep England from going to war, and to help ^"^ po^'^^y- 
her to make herself rich and prosperous. But he never 
thought of doing great deeds, of doing away with unjust 
laws and getting just ones made, of setting right some of 


Settlemaii of the ConstitiUion. 1 722, 

the many evil things that then were, or of helping men 
to grow wiser and better. Indeed, he believed that most 
men neither were, nor could be made, good ; his opinion 
of men was so low that he thought they would do any- 
thing for money. * Every man has his price,' he said. 
There was little in him to love or respect. But he had 
much good sense, and knew well how to work on men's 
minds. It was not a time for carr)'ing out great plans ; 
the people were not in a humour for them, and were quite 
content to be ruled by Walpole. And they were right ; 
for on the whole things went well with England during 
the twenty years that Walpole was Prime Minister. 

2. Perhaps Walpole would not have been so long at 
the head of affairs but for the cunning way in which he 
The Cpnsti- managed the Commons. We have seen how 
ef lueenth^ ncccssary it was for the King or his chief 
century. Minister to get most of the members of the 

Lower House to give him their votes. W^alpole, partly 
because the state of things favoured him, and partly 
because he was ver\' clever in managing public assem- 
blies, got members to vote with him better than any 
minister who had lived before him. For the ways in 
which men gained seats in Parliament were very different 
then from what they are now. Many of the towns that 
had the right of sending representatives were mere vil- 
lages ; and in many others, though they were larger, there 
were only very few people who had a vote. It had there- 
fore come to pass that the noblemen or gentlemen who 
owned the lands on which these towns stood 
ti^nTo""" could have whatever members they liked 
roughs.' chosen for these places. Besides, the great 

landowners had often such influence in the counties that 
the voters in these were willing to please their landlords 
or noble neighbours by voting for the persons whom they 
favoured. There was also a class of boroughs, chiefly 

1722. The Ministry of Sir Robert Walpole. 55 

seaports, which were quite ready to give their votes to 
whomsoever the King or his Ministers desired. It is 
clear, then, that most of the Commons were not represen- 
tatives of the \jeople, but of the King's Ministers and other 
great men of the kingdom. 

3. In this way it came about that the Revolution, in 
making the House of Commons the strongest thing in 
the State, gave the leading part in ruHng the _, „ 

1 he l\.evo- 

nation to a number of great families. These Uition 
are known in history as the Revolution /ami- f^'^'^i^^- 
lies^ ox great Whig houses^ for most of them belonged to 
the Whig party. For a long time it would have been 
almost impossible to carry on the Government without 
the active support of a good number of these houses ; 
and their support could be gained only by giving the chief 
men among them a large share in governing. It is true 
that the King had still some power ; he could give away 
posts of great dignity and value in Church and State, 
pensions, peerages, and other honours that many men 
were glad to have. But the first two kings of the line of 
Hanover were strangers ; neither of them knew much of 
English ways or English feeling, and did not care to take 
any trouble to keep up the king's power. Accordingly 
the heads of the great houses generally had their own 
way. We shall see that the third king of the line did 
make a great effort to win back to the Crown the autho- 
rity it had lost, and succeeded too. 

4. For twenty years Sir Robert Walpole was able by 
wise management to keep on his side iDoth most of the 
Whig Houses and the king, and thus to get Walpoie's 
the Commons to vote in the way he wished menrof the 
on every question that came before them. Commons. 
Moreover, he is believed to have paid away great sums 
of money in bribing Members. He was not the first to 
use this means of gaining votes ; but he is said to have 


Settlement of tJie Constitution. 1722-24. 

used it much more than any other minister ever did. It 
was begun in Charles II/s reign, and first became com- 
mon in WilHam III/s time, when the good-will of the 
Lower House was seen to be so needful to the King's 

5. But we must not think that the King's Ministers 
need pay no heed to the wishes of the people. Walpole 
The people himself was more than once forced to give up 
cl*Iif L his own wull and do what the nation bade him, 
count. even when Parliament would have cheerfully 
agreed to the course he wanted to take. Only the 
people had to speak out very strongly, and show that 
they were really in earnest, and ivoiild have the matter 
settled in the way they thought right. They were sel- 
dom, however, very much in earnest then about anything ; 
for a time they cared very little how things went on in 
the State. 

6. Few ver>' noteworthy things happened while 
Walpole ruled England. So long as George I. lived 
this Minister ran little risk of losing his place, and was 
able to deal in a high-handed way with each question as 
it arose. In 1722 the Jacobites tried to make themselves 
troublesome, but failed ; and next year their leader, 
Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, was banished for life 
by Act of Parliament. In 1724 the English settlers in 
Wood's Ireland flew into a great rage because Walpole 
halfpence, began to issue among them a new supply of 

halfpence and farthings, made by William 
Wood, an English ironmaster. They said that these 
coins were far below the value of similar coins in Eng- 
land, and that they were issued only to enrich Wood and 
some worthless people about the English Court. Dean 
Swift, who owed Walpole a grudge, wrote with great 
force against this coinage, and so worked upon the minds 
of his countrymen that they would not receive it on any 



1 724-33- T/ie Ministry of Sir Robert Walpole. 5 7 

terms. Walpole, powerful as he was, had to allow the 
coinage to be withdrawn. Then in 1725 Spain, wishing 
to get back Gibraltar, made an alliance with Another 
Austria, and went to war with England. But s^ain^^^ 
none of these things shook Walpole's hold on 1725-27- 
power in the least. So quiet had things become that in 
the session of 1724 there was but one division in the 

7. In June 1727 the reign of George I. suddenly 
ended. He had gone to visit his German subjects, and 
was on his way to Osnabruck, when apoplexy 

seized him, and he died in his carriage. George°l., 
George I. was an upright man, who sought to i"'^^ ^727- 
deal justly with all men, and was much loved King, 1727- 
in Hanover. But he was silent, awkward, and ^^ 
cold in his manner, and was little liked in England. 
His son at once became King as George II. The new 
king at first thought of sending W^alpole away, but in a 
few days he changed his mind and kept him in office. 

8. England and France were still fast friends ; for 
Walpole was bent on keeping the country out of war, and 
above all out of a war with France. This, he 

knew, was the only nation that could help the wfth"^^^'^ 
Pretender in a way that would make him really France, 
dangerous ; without aid from France the Jacobites were 
harmless, and could do little mischief. For many years, 
therefore, the Pretender, owing to Walpole's wisdom, was 
unable to move ; and thus the new line of kings had time 
to strengthen themselves on the throne. 

9. But Walpole failed in one thing which he had set 
his heart on getting done. In 1733 he brought a bill into 
Parliament for levying the duties on certain 

goods, tobacco being the first, not as customs scheme,*^^^^ 
—which are paid at the seaports, when the ^733- 
goods are brought into the country — but as excise, which 


Settlement of t/ie Constitution, 1733-39. 

jealousy of 
able men. 

his will, 

is paid when the goods are sent throughout the country. 
He said that it did not cost so much to raise an excise, 
that men could not keep back or steal part of it so easily, 
and that thus more money would come into the treasury, 
while the people paid just the same. But most English 
folk then hated the excise ; the very word put them in an 
ill-humour. A loud outcry against Walpole's plan went 
up from all parts of the country ; and Walpole, much 
against his will, gave it up. 

10. But this did not weaken Walpole ; both King and 
Parliament still upheld him, and for a while longer the 

people also rested contentedly under his rule. 
Year after year passed, leaving Walpole still 
at the head of affairs, as strong as ever to work 
But he had made one great mistake in his 
He had always been jealous of able men, and 
had driven away most of those who had been in office 
with him. There was hardly one man of merit in his 
Government whom he did not get rid of at some time 
or other. Even Townshend had to resign his place. This 
unwise conduct hurt Walpole in two ways : it chased 
away from his side the men who were best fitted 
to help him in the hour of need, and it sent them 
to join the ranks of his foes. Thereupon this band of 
The foes, who called themselves the Patriots^ went 

Patriots. Qj^ steadily growing until nearly every able 
statesman belonged to it. Its leader in the Commons 
was William Pulteney, a brilliant speaker, who had once 
been Walpole's trustiest friend. But the man among the 
Patriots who had the greatest gifts of mind and noblest 
character was a young man, William Pitt, who first 
made himself known by his fiery speeches in Parliament 
against Walpole. Seldom has a Minister had so many 
great men arrayed against him. 

11. Yet for many years Walpole held his ground in 

1739. TJie Ministry of Sir Robert Walpole. 59 

spite of them all. They brought many charges against 
him. They said that, to please the King, he waipole 
took more pain s about H anover than England ; ^^^ ^^^ f°«s. 
that he was tamely letting Spain trample upon the honour 
and the interests of England ; that he was destroying the 
manly tone and honesty of the nation by his wicked arts, 
bribery and corruption. On these points they assailed 
him again and again, but for a time without success. 
Single-handed Walpole withstood them, and beat them 
in every division. Indeed, once (1739) they got so dis- 
heartened that they left Parliament altogether. At last 
a great longing for a war with Spain seized upon the 
people ; and the Patriots turned this into a means of 
overthrowing their great enemy. 

12. At this time fresh life was given in England to 
the old hatred of the Spaniards by the cruelties which 
English seamen were said to be suffering at Troubles 
Spanish hands in the Southern Seas. Spain did ^'^^^ Spain, 
not like that any country but herself should trade with her 
colonies in America, and very unwillingly allowed a single 
English ship to carry goods to them once a year. But 
the English found the traffic profitable, and in one way or 
another contrived to send to Spanish America far more 
goods than one ship could carry. For a time the Spaniards 
took little heed of these things ; but in 1733 their King 
secretly made an alliance, called a Family Compact, with 
the French King, and after this the American coasts were 
more closely watched. English ships that sailed or were 
driven by opposing winds into their seas were boarded 
and searched by Spanish officials, who often did their 
duty very roughly. One of them even tore off the ear of 
Robert Jenkins, the master of a Jamaica trading sloop. 
Hence the war that these doings led to is 

' The Jen- 

sometimes known as ' the Jenkins' Ear War.' kms' Ear 
The English grew more and more angry as ^^^' 
they heard of these things, and at last began to call 


Settlement of the Constitution. 


loudly for war with Spain. Walpole tried eagerly to pre- 
vent an outbreak of war ; but his efforts failed. The 
English were bent on punishing Spain for the many 
wrongs they thought she had done them. Walpole, 
much against his will, had to go to war (1739). Yet the 
English arms did not prosper. Though Vernon took 
Portobello in 1739, the Spaniards m 1741 beat back from 
Carthagena with great loss a large force that Walpole 
had sent to take it. Walpole got the blame of every 
failure ; the Patriots grew ever louder and fiercer in call- 
ing him the cause of all the nation's troubles. Still he 
Fall of Wal- ^^^^^^^ doggedly for his place. But the General 
pole, Feb. Election of 1742 gave the Patriots a small 
^'^^'^- majority in the Commons, and Walpole was 

forced to resign. He was at the same time made Earl 
of Orford. 

13. The war with Spain went on until 1748; but nothing 
further that was striking happened in it except Commodore 
Anson's great voyage round the world. In September 
1 740 Anson had been sent with a squadron to do all the 
Anson's damage he could to the Spaniards along the 

voyage, westeru coast of South America. He was away 

1740-44- almost four years, during which he met with 

many wonderful adventures. In a storm he lost, or was 
separated from, all his ships but two ; but with these he 
seized many ships and took the town of Paita, in Peru. 
In crossing the Pacific he burned one of his ships. With 
the other he fought and took a great Manilla galleon near 
the Philippine Islands. In June 1744 he reached home. 


1742-44. 61 



1. The Ministry that followed Walpole's was not alto- 
gether made up of new men ; many of those who held the 
smaller places stayed in office after the fall of xhe new 
their leader. In those days the Ministers did Ministry. 
not form a close and united body, as they do now. Each 
sometimes took a course of his own apart from the rest ; 
so that a change of Ministry often meant little more than 
a change of leaders. The man who now took the first 
place in guiding the counsels of the King was John, Lord 
Carteret ; but Lord Chancellor Hardwicke and the Pel- 
hams, who stayed with Walpole to the last, were still very 
powerful. Indeed, only a few of Walpole's foes were 
taken into the new Cabinet. There was much discontent 
at this, and the Ministry was not at first very strong in 
the Commons. 

2. Carteret was much liked by George II. He had 
good parts, was gay and genial in society, but over-fond 
of strong drink. He was the only Minister who knew 
German and the right way of dealing with German States. 
He therefore led the nation into a closer connexion with 
German affairs than pleased either his brother 
Ministers or the Commons. Without asking power?' '" 
their advice he made treaties, and pledged ^742-44- 
the Eng'lish people to give away large sums of money. 

. So whilst he rose ever higher in the King's favour he 
became unpopular. In November 1744 the Pelhams 
and their friends told the King plainly that 
they and Carteret— now Earl Granville by his cJneret, 
mother's death — could not any longer work ^744- 
together, and that either he or they must give up office. 
The King would gladly have kept Granville rather than 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1744-46. 

the Pelhams ; but the Pelhams had many more followers 

in the Commons than their rival, and the King had to 

send away the Minister he liked best. For without a 

majority in the Commons no Minister could now get on. 

3. The Pelhams were the Duke of Newcastle and his 

younger brother, Henry. The Duke was a fussy man, 

The Pel- who bustled about in a way that made people 

Jower!" laugh. He had much knowledge of business, 

1744-54- but little ability. Henry Pelham was in 

every way superior to his brother, though his powers 

of mind were not great. He did not shine either as a 

speaker or as a ruler ; but he was hard-working, sensible, 

and clearheaded ; and his training under Walpole had 

given him some skill in managing affairs. For these 

reasons he was in 1744 placed at the head of the Ministry. 

This has been called the broad-bottom Ministry^ from 

the number of men of various parties who belonged to it. 

Even Tories held places in it. But its chief strength lay 

in the support of the great Whig houses, many of whose 

heads were members of it. On one point only did George 

II. stand firm: he would not take Pitt into his service, 

as the Pelhams wished. For Pitt had in his speeches 

spoken of Hanover in a way that had deeply hurt the 

King. Yet in little more than a year George had to yield 

on this point also. In February 1746 the Ministers, 

Ministerial knowing that the King was listening in private 

crisis of to GranviUe's advice, and was therefore not 

June 1746. trusting them, suddenly gave up their places 

in a body. Granville then tried to get together a Ministry 

of his own, but failed ; and the King had to take back the 

Pelhams on their own terms. One of these was that Pitt 

. should have a place ; and he was appointed, 

Pittin office. r ^ ^ • r ^ ■, \ 

iirst to a mmor post, afterwards to that of 
Paymaster of the Forces. The great families could now 
make the King do what he most disliked. 



T/ie Pelhams. 






4. By this time England had been drawn into a war 
with France. It is usually called the War of the Austrian 
Succession. England joined in it as the ally The War of 
of Maria Theresa, whose title to the ancestral the Austrian 

J . . f. . ' , buccession, 

dominions of her father, the Emperor Charles 1740-48. 
VI., was disputed by Bavaria, France, Prussia, and other 
States. Charles, having no son, had been eager that his 
daughter should succeed to the rule of the lands that had 
come to him by inheritance ; and, to make her succession 
sure, had got nearly all the European Powers to sign a 
paper called the Pragmatic Sanctioji^ by which they 
bound themselves to uphold her claim. But when he 
died (1740) the Elector of Bavaria said that by right the 
Austrian lands ought to come to him, and set about con- 
quering them ; whilst Frederick II., the young King of 
Prussia, laid hold of Silesia ; and France, wishing to 
weaken Germany, sent two armies across the Rhine to 
aid Bavaria. Only England and Holland loyally stood 
by their promises. 

In 1743 a united force of British and Hanoverians, 
40,000 strong, marched to Aschaffenburg, on the river 
Main. King George himself came and took 
the command. W^hilst they lay at this place, Dmingln, 
Noailles, the French general, blocked them J""^ 1743.' 
up so closely that they could move neither forward nor 
backward without fighting a battle under great disad- 
vantages. At last their supply of food became scanty, 
and one morning, late in June, they started back along 
the right bank of the Main, hoping to force their way to 
Hanau, where their bread-stores were. As they drew near 
to Dettingen they found that there was a French force 
posted right in front of them on the far side of some 
marshy ground. Whilst they were putting themselves in 
battle-array the leader of this French force, Grammont 
getting impatient, led his men across the marshy ground 


Settlcmcfit of the Constitution, 1743-45. 

and charged down on the Allies with great swiftness. Their 
first three lines were broken through ; but the fourth held 
its ground, and poured such a steady musketr>' fire into 
the ranks of the French that they had to fall back in 
disorder. Then the Allies pushed boldly on, and routed 
and drove the French from the field. The victors then 
pursued their march to Hanau. The Allies gained nothing 
but glor>^ from the fight of Dettingen. Never since has 
an English king led an army in battle. 

5. As yet the two nations were not at war ; England 
merely fought as the friend of Maria Theresa, France as 
the friend of the Bavarian Elector, who had been chosen 
Emperor the year before. But in 1 744 the French took 
up the Stuart cause and tried to land 15,000 men on the 
English coast. A storm scattered the fleet that carried 

Battle of ^^^"^ ' ^^^ ^ declaration of war followed. This 
Fontenoy, War was waged chiefly in Flanders, where the 
May, 1745. Allies were led by King George's younger 
son, the Duke of Cumberland. Its greatest battle was 
fought at Fontenoy in May 1745. Cumberland had ad- 
vanced with 50,000 British, Dutch, and Austrians, ta 
drive the French besieging army from before Tournay. 
Prince Maurice of Saxony, the French leader, had taken 
his stand near Fontenoy, and there thrown up strong 
defences. Cumberland, then a hot-headed youth, made 
his troops attack these ; but they were beaten back at all 
points. Angry at this repulse, the English general sent a 
column of British Infantry, 16,000 strong, straight upon 
the French position. This fearless body of men marched 
steadily whither they had been sent, and, getting inside 
the French lines, for a time swept from their path every 
force that strove to check their course. But they were 
not backed up as they ought to have been, and they had 
to march back the way they came, beaten but not dis- 
graced. Then Cumberland led off his army, and 



The Pelhams, 


Tournay fell. Shortly afterwards the Duke was called 
back to England to face danger nearer home. 

6. The war with France had given fresh life to the 
dying Jacobite cause. And there had lately come for- 
ward as the leader of this cause a high- 
spirited young prince, of handsome person and EdwlS 
winning manners, who believed it was his ^^"^" 
fate to win back the kingdoms to his house. Scotland, 
This was Charles Edward, sometimes named '^'^^' 
the Young Chevalier, the elder of the two sons of James 
Edward. Towards the end of July 1745 he came with 
only seven companions to the west coast of Inverness-shire 
and sought to stir up the Highlanders to take up arms in 
his father's behalf. The Highland chiefs doubted at first, 
but many of them were won over by Charles's eager 
words. Gathering at Glenfinnan, the clans swept round 
by Corryarrick and Blair Athol to Perth. Sir John Cope 
had gone northwards with a small force to meet them 
but on reaching Corryarrick had become afraid, and 
turned aside to Inverness. The road to the Lowlands 
then lay open, and Charles promptly took it. In the 
third week of September the Highlanders 
entered Edinburgh. Three days later the pSon^ 
Prince led them westwards to meet Cope's ^^"''' '745. 
army, which had sailed to Dunbar. They found it near 
Preston Pans, and in a single rush almost destroyed 

Returning to Edinburgh, Charles stayed there for 
six weeks, and then started for England. He had 
now about 6,000 men under his command. 

Taking the Western road, his troops went t?and from 

steadily on until they entered Derby. There q^*"^/' 

they paused ; and though Charles was himself December, 

full of hope and burned to push on to London, ^^"^^^ 
the chiefs resolved to go back to Scotland. Few English 

E.H. F 

66 Settlenmit of the Constitution, 1746. 

had joined them ; and they were disheartened. On their 
way back they beat a body of soldiers that overtook them 

at Chfton, in Cumberland. On the day before Christmas 
Fight of they marched into Glasgow. They then laid 
ja^nuary, siege to Stirling, but could not take it. But 
1746. at Falkirk Muir they overcame General 



The Pelhams. 


Hawley, who had been sent with 8,000 men to relieve 
Stirling. Cumberland himself then took the command 
of the royal troops ; -and the Highlanders fell back to 
Inverness. Next spring the Duke went in search of 
them, and found them at Culloden Field, near Inverness 
At Culloden the royal troops were handled 
so well that the wildest rushes of the High- cSbden 
landers could not break their firm array AprU, ly^e. 
The mountaineers, thus baffled, soon scattered before the 
murderous volleys of musketry, and made for their several 
homes. Thus ended the last Jacobite rising. The poor 
Highlanders were most cruelly treated by the victorious 
soldiers. For five months Charles wandered about 
through the Highlands and Western isles, suffering many 
hardships and meeting with very romantic adventures 
But in September he got off safe to France. Of his fol' 
lowers the Lords Lovat, Kilmarnock, and Balmerinoch 
were beheaded ; nearly a hundred others were also 
executed. A law was then made doing away with the 
special authority of the Highland chieftains over their 

7. The war with France still went on ; but in 
Flanders the Allies were generally unsuccessful. As a 
set-off to their failures by land the British Pe.ce of 
gained two victories at sea. At length in 1748 A^^'^- 
peace was made with France and Spain at ^'X"'' 
Aix-la-Chapelle. None of the nations won anything in 
this war, except Prussia, which was allowed to keep Silesia 

8. Six years of unbroken quiet at home and abroad 
followed. In 1754 Henry Pelham died, and the strife 
of statesmen began anew. At the same time Death of 
things were fast ripening towards the outbreak ^^^'^ 

of one of the most important wars in history fzt'"' 
-the Seven Years' War, as it afterwards came to be 

F 2 






I. After the death of Henry Pelham it was not easy 
to form a ministry that could both do the work of govern- 

Newcastie's ^"^^"^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^'^^ thought needful 
iviinistry, through the House of Commons. Newcastle 
1754-56. ^Q^j, ^j^g ^j.gj. pi^^g . j^^^ j^^ wanted a man to 

lead the Commons. It was not easy to get such a man ; 
Pitt was too high-minded, and was, moreover, disliked 
by the King. Henry Fox, a clever man, who knew well 
how to humour the Lower House, and had few scruples, 
was willing to take the post ; but Newcastle wanted ta 
keep all the power to himself; and it was some time 
Newcastle's bcforc he could make his bargain with Fox. 
troubles. Even after he got Fox troubles came thick 
upon Newcastle. The nation kept drifting into war with 
France ; and the Duke, looking about for alhes, wanted 
to draw closer to Austria, which had secretly entered into 
a friendship with France. Then the French, without 
declaring war, besieged St. Philip's, in Minorca ; and 
Admiral Byng, who had been sent with a fleet to bring 
succour to the place, came away without doing anything. 
The people grew very angry ; and men began to think 
more and more of Pitt as the only man who could save 
Newcastle ^^ nation. Newcastle offered to have Eyng 
resjgn hanged — indeed, next year Byng was tried 

by court-martial and shot— but the people 
were still uneasy and fretful. Then Fox left Newcastle, 
and soon his Ministry broke up. 

^756-57- The Seven Years' War, 


Pitt Secre- 
tary of 
1756— April, 

2. By this time war with France had come in earnest, 
and the voice of the people called loudly for Pitt as the 
only man fit to have the management of it. 
Thereupon the King yielded ; and a Ministry 
was formed in which the Duke of Devonshire, 
a man of spotless honour, was Prime Minister, 
and Pitt Secretary of State. In a few months, 
however, the King— in whose mind the hard things that 
Pitt had once said about Hanover still rankled— took 
away his office from Pitt, and asked Newcastle to try and 
get a ministry together once more. But Pitt had now 
become the darling of the people, and men gave utter- 
ance to their feelings in a very marked way. The lead- 
ing cities and towns sent each its freedom to Pitt in a 
gold box ; ' for some weeks,' it was said, ' it rained gold 
boxes.' The King and Newcastle found that it was 
hopeless to try any longer to withstand the will of the 
people. Pitt was sent for, again made Secretary, and 
allowed to become the ruling spirit in the new Pitt's great 
Cabinet. The management of the war and ^^'"'^try 
all dealings with foreign States were wholly Ju^t 1*757. 
placed in his hands. Newcastle was First Lord of 
the Treasury, and Anson First Lord of the Admiralty. 
Thus was brought into being one of the strongest minis- 
tries that have ever ruled England. It had all the 
strength that came from Parliamentary support, for most 
of the Commons voted as Newcastle wished ; and it had 
all the strength that came from masterly intellect and the 
hearty love of the people, for Pitt was the largest-minded 
and most popular statesman that England has known for 
two hundred years. The King too forgot his old grudge 
against Pitt, and held loyally by his great minister. 

William Pitt, known in his own days as * the Great 
Commoner,' was the son of a West Country gentleman. 
His character was very pure and noble ; when Paymaster 



70 Settlement of the Constitution, i u9-<,^^ 

he would not take anything but his lawful salar>', though 
It was then usual for Paymasters to enrich themselves by 
wmiam putting out at interest the balance of public 
b.'i7o8, money in their hands. His ways of speaking 

<l. X778. and acting were marked by a certain gran- 

deur and stateliness, which filled those who came near 
him with a feeling of awe. We have had few statesmen 
equal to him in clearness of thought and greatness of soul. 
3. The point that England and France had now re- 
solved to settle by force of arms was— which of the two 
The English nations should be master in North America 
m Amenca. ^he English Colonies there had grown very 
much of late years ; the settlement of Georgia in 1733 
had raised their number to thirteen, and in 1756 their 
population had reached 1,300,000. The land they dwelt 
m stretched from the river Kennebec almost to the 
Gulf of Mexico, and from the sea-coast to the Alleghany 
mountains. They had not spread to the west of these 
mountains, though some men among them were think- 
The French ing of making a settlement there. Now the 
^^ench had formed colonies in Canada and 
Louisiana. There were indeed very {^\w French colonists 
—hardly 60,000 in all— but many of these were soldiers, 
whilst the English had no great skill or training in arms' 
About 1749 the French began to claim all the lands west 
of the Alleghanies ; and the Governor of Canada was 
ordered to take the needful steps to secure these lands 
for France. He at once set about raising a line of forts 
between Canada and Louisiana. This line was to be a 
border marking off the country which belonged to France 
from that which belonged to England. By this arrange- 
ment the 1,300,000 English would have been shut up in a 
comparatively narrow strip of land along the seacoast, 
while the 60,000 French would have had almost all the 
rest of North America. 


The Seven Years' War. 


4. Just as the French were beginning to carry out this 
design a company was formed in England to colonise 
500,000 acres of land which King George had granted 
them on the banks of the Ohio. But a small French 
force had already built a fort there, which they called 
Fort Duquesne. In 1754 George Washington, then a 
young man, marched across the Alleghanies with 150 
Virginians, to drive the French from the place. The 
French were too strong for Washington, and he returned 
home. By this time the English Government had come 
to see that a great effort must be made to put down the 
French in America ; and General Braddock was sent out 
with two regiments to aid the colonists. Braddock 
started from Virginia with 2,000 men, made his way 
across the Alleghanies, and led his force Defeat of 
blindly into the woods. When within 10 miles p^"!'.^' . 
of Fort Duquesne he was assailed by bodies 1755- °*^ ' 
of French and Indians, who kept themselves carefully 
under cover. Braddock, after losing 700 of his small 
army, and getting mortally wounded himself, was forced 
to retreat. He died on the way. There had also been 
much wrangling and much fighting about the border 
between Canada and Nova Scotia, where the English 
had lately built the town of Halifax (1749). Clearly the 
two peoples could not live at peace with each other on 
equal terms. England and France now went to war to 
find out which was to have the mastery. 

5. Prussia was an ally of England in this war. 
Frederick the Great, then king in Prussia, was George 
XL's nephew, but hitherto there had been little Alliance 
friendship between the two princes. Frederick t"^^ ■ 
had acted with France in the last war, and 1757-62. 
until 1756 had been supposed to be still in close alliance 
with the French king. But in that year it came to light 
that Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony had 


72 Settlement of the Cojistitution. 1 756-58. 

banded themselves together to crush Prussia utterly • 
and Frederick gladly made an alliance with his uncle' 
By this England was to give Frederick 670,000/. every 
year, both kings were to wage a common war against 
France, and neither was to make peace without the 



I. For the four years during which Pitt held the chief 
power he thought of little else than how to bring the war 
to a happy ending for England. It was his fixed resolve 
to blot out the rule of the French in North America, and 

Pitt's aims ^"^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^°^^ mastery there to his 'own 
countrymen. The American nation, now one 
of the mightiest on earth, owes the beginning of its 
greatness to this war. ' 

2. At the outset England got rather the worse. In 
1756 Minorca was wrested from her; and in 1757 a 
The war be- German army in English pay, led by the Duke 
^ns badly. ^f Cumberland, fell back before the French 
Stade, on the sea-coast ; and to save it Cumberland 
agreed, at Kloster-Zeven, to let the French keep Hanover 
for a time. In America ;too the French seemed to be 
the stronger power. In 1758, though they quietly left 
Fort Duquesne when they heard that an army was coming 
against the place, yet they beat back a body of 12,000 
from Ticonderoga, killing or wounding 2,000 of them.' 

3. But most of these things either happened or were 
planned before Pitt became Chief Minister. Shortly after 
The war in ^^^ appointment the war took a favourable turn 
Germany. in both Germany and America. In Germany 
'^^ • Pitt got from King Frederick a very good 

general, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, and set him over 


1759. Events of the Seven Years' War. 73 

the army which Cumberland had led so badly. Ferdinand 
at once moved upon the French, drove them back from 
point to point, and at last swept them clean out of 
Hanover. He even followed them across the Rhine, and 
overthrew them at Crefeld. Then Pitt added a 
British force of 12,000 to Ferdinand's army. c?efdd.^ 
Most of our Highland regiments served for J""e,i758. 
the first time in this war. Pitt had lately raised these 
regiments from the Highland clans, rightly thinking that in 
this way he would turn rebels into loyal soldiers. In 1758 a 
fleet and army were sent against Cape Breton also. General 
Amherst was leader of the army, but his second in com- 
mand was James Wolfe, a young soldier of great skill and 
daring, simple-hearted and truthful, whom Pitt had picked 
out for command from among much older 
men. The French tried to hinder the English s^uwler^" 
from landing, but failed. Louisburg, the chief '758. 
town of Cape Breton, was besieged and taken, whereupon 
the whole island passed into the hands of the English. 

4. But the great year of the war was 1 759 ; perhaps in 
no single year has England won so many great successes 
as in this one. In Germany, in America, in India, off the 
coasts of Portugal and France mighty deeds of war were 
done by the English. A writer then living said, ' One is 
forced to ask every morning what victory there is, for fear 
of missing one.' 

5. (i.) In Germany the campaign began with a defeat. 
The French having seized the free town of Frankfort, 
Ferdinand marched swiftly southwards with 

30,000 men to try and dislodge them. A Germany!" 

little way from Frankfort he came upon '759- 

35,000 French drawn up at Bergen, fought long and 
stubbornly to clear them from his path, but 

had at last to go back the way he came, leav- Bergen?^ 

ing 2,500 of his troops on the field. Yet in ^^''^- ' 
the following August he gained a victory at Minden, 



Pj' I W jftir^ - W V^_>:^ rcJi,' «rfL 

1 ^^^ .^^ 

J - 


74 Scttleinmt of the ConstiUition. ,759. 

which more than wiped away the disgrace of Ber-en 
He was standing at bay on the left bank of the Weser 
with two French armies before him. These were stron<^lv 
posted, and he dared not attack them. But he cun- 
ningly tempted the French to come across the river • 
whereupon six Enghsh regiments of foot boldly charged 
OfMinden, and Scattered the French horse. The French 

Enghsh foot, but were again routed by the swift and 
steady musketry-l^re of their foes. Then the French 
general gave the word for retreat. Ferdinand sent orders 
to Lord George Sackville, the commander of the En-lish 
horse to charge the retreating army ; and it is thotght 
that, If Lord George had done so, the French army would 
have been utterly crushed. But the Englishman, for 
reasons that are not exactly known, would not char-e • 
ana the beaten French were able to get back across the 
river. They lost 7,000 in this battle. For this contempt 
of orders Sackville was put out of the army altogether 
by Kmg George. The Marquis of Granby took his place 
.n command of the horse. Ferdinand kept the upper 
hand throughout the rest of the campaign, the French 
armies moving back towards Frankfort. 

(2.) But the war in Germany was important only be- 
cause It made success in America possible. It was in 
The war in '^"'erica that the greatest event of the war 
America, indeed of the century, took place. This was 
frnn, ri, r ^l f "f Q"ebec, the chief town of Canada, 
from the French. Late in June a large fleet, having on 

Wn[f 'T, "■°°P'' ""^"'' *^ <^°'""''^"d °f General 
V\ olfe, sailed into the St. Lawrence. Quebec stands on 

Quebec '"^ 'eft bank of this river, perched on very 

besieged. high rocks ; and the French commander, 

a li,rl. I. ^^°""^^'"'' '^'^d posted his army, ,0,000 in all, 
a httle lower down on the same side. Wolfe began by 



1759. Events of the Seven Years' War, ' 75 

bombarding the town from the other side, but did not get 
a bit nearer winning it, though he did it much harm. 

Next he crossed to the left bank and tried to force 
Montcalm from his position. But his foremost troops 
were too eager, and rushing upon their foes before the 



Settlement of the Constitntioji. 


others could be brought forward, were beaten and driven 
back in confusion. Wolfe became disheartened, and 
almost gave up all hope of getting Quebec that year. 
Through death and disease his army dwindled to hardly 
more than 4,500, and he himself fell into a fever. He 
waited on, however, thinking that help might come to 
him from the South, whence Generals Amherst and 
Johnson were striving to make their way. But no help 
-came ; Johnson took Niagara, Amherst Ticonderoga, yet 
neither could get near Quebec. At last, one dark night 
in September, Wolfe's men went aboard boats and drifted 
silently with an ebbing tide to a point two miles above 
Quebec, now called Wolfe's Cove. There they landed, 
climbed the Heights of Abraham, which rose steep from' 
the river, and early next morning stood drawn up in 
battle array on the level ground behind the town. 
Montcalm was taken by surprise, but at once hastened 
with his army to ' smash ' the English, as he said. The 
French came briskly on ; the Enghsh stood stock-still 
until they got their foes within forty yards— then they all 
Death of at the Same moment poured a deadly volley 
Wolfe. jj^^Q ^YiQ French ranks. The French paused ; 

and Wolfe at once led his grenadiers to the charge. In 
a few minutes all was over ; the enemy fled from the field. 
But the noble Wolfe fell ; hit by three musket-balls, he 

Sken^ Se ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^° ^^ ^°^^ ^^^^ ^^^ French ran 
temblV, ^^' and to say, ' I shall die happy,' when he breathed 
^759- his last. Montcalm too was wounded, and 

died next^day. Four days later Quebec surrendered. 

(3.) This year the French made a grand plan for 
the^p^rtu°^ invading England. They got together fleets 
^eseand at Toulon, Havre, and Brest, and thought 
coSs, ^^at i^ these could be combined success was 

^759. sure. But Pitt took care to prevent the union 

•of these fleets. In July he sent Admiral Rodney against 


ment of 



Battle of 



1759-60. Events of the Seven Years' War, 77 

Havre, who did much damage to the town and the flat- 
bottomed boats that were to carry the French soldiers 
across the Channel. In August, Admiral g^ , 
Boscawen caught the Toulon fleet, which had ""^ ^^ ' 
slipped through the Straits of Gibraltar, off 
Lagos, in Portugal, and at once closed with it. 
In this fight five of the largest French ships 
were taken or sunk, and the rest driven 
ashore or forced to flee. Yet the French still clung 
to their plan ; and the preparations at Brest were 
pushed briskly forward. To Admiral Hawke had 
been given the duty of watching that port, and he 
had watched it all the summer and autumn. But in 
November the French fleet under Conflans, finding that 
wild weather had driven Hawke from his sta- Battle of 
tion, put out to sea. Hawke heard of this Q"iberon 
movement, came back with all speed, fell upon November.l 
Conflans, and beat him utterly. This battle was fought 
in the midst of a raging storm, among dangerous rocks 
and shoals, well known to the French, but not to the 
English. It was an awful scene; three French ships 
were sunk or burnt ; two struck their flags ; the rest were 
chased into the river Vilaine or Charente. 

6. The war lasted some years longer; but the English 
always got the better of their enemies. In 1760 three 
small armies moved at the same time on Canada 
Montreal, where the French still held out. ^^^^^6. 
Montreal surrendered, and the French power lyeS.^" ' 
in Canada came to an end. Prince Ferdinand too kept 
his ground in Westphalia against forces much larger than 
his own, and even gained one or two battles. Never had 
the name of England been so great. 

7. But at this point the King of Spain thought fit to 
enter into the war on the side of France. He was a 
Bourbon, and had a kindly feeling for his cousin of 


7S Settlement of the Constitution. 1 761-63. 

France. English war-ships, he said, had done grievous 
wrong to Spanish trade during the war ; and Enghshmen 
Spain joins ^"^^ ^ut logwood, in spite of him, on the 
fgJi"n?t ^^""^^ °^ Campeachy Bay. In 1761 he bound 

England, himself by another Family Compact to go to 
1762. ^^j. ^i^j^ England if peace were not made 

before May i, 1762. Pitt found out about this Family 
Compact, and wanted to make war on Spain at once 
when she was unprepared. But George II. had died the 
year before (October, 1760) ; his grandson, George III., 
was not so hearty in upholding Pitt ; war was not de- 
clared ; and Pitt went out of office. In 1762, however, 
the Spaniards, having got themselves ready, began war 
Spain vvith England. Again England was victo- 

defeated j-ious at every point. A Spanish army which 

had invaded Portugal, then an ally of England, was 
forced to withdraw ; Havanna, the chief town of Cuba, 
was taken at one end of the earth ; Manilla, the chief 
town of the Philippine islands, was taken at the other. 
Vast sums of money fell into the hands of the victors at 
both places. 

8. In 1763 the war was brought to a close by the 
Peace of Paris. This treaty has some likeness to the 
Peace of Peace of Utrecht. The Earl of Bute, George 
FeWry ^^^''^ ^cw Minister, was so anxious to end the 
1763. war that he not only abandoned England's 

ally, the Prussian king, but let off France and Spain much 
easier than they had hoped. France made over to 
England, Canada, Cape Breton, and some West India 
islands, and gave back Minorca. To Spain, England 
restored Havanna and Manilla, getting only Florida in 
their place. Most Englishmen were greatly displeased 
with this arrangement ; but Bute carried it out neverthe- 




I. Two things make the Seven Years' War the most 
fruitful event of modern times for England. The first is 
that it overthrew the French power in America, and thus 
smoothed the way for the revolt of the English colonies 
When the colonists no longer needed the help 
of the mother-country against foes on their feln"'^ 
soil they were sure soon to separate them- ^^^''s' War. 
selves from her altogether. The second noticeable thing 
about this war is, that during it the English be-an to 
build up their Empire in India. 

2. England owes her sway over India to a mere body 
of traders. In 1600 some London merchants got from 
Queen Elizabeth a charter giving them the 
sole right of trading with the East Indies for Complnf 
fifteen years. Thus the great East India gLcetb'er 
Company was founded. In 1609 James J. 3m6oo. 
renewed this charter without fixing any term of years 
only keeping to himself the power of taking it awav at 

noHrrVv ^^r^^ ^" ^^ '^" ^"^^P^^y three years' 
notice. This Company lasted until 1859; but in i8n 

other people were allowed to trade with India as well 
.1, 3.^^^ ^50 years the Company went on trading with 
the East with no other thought than that of gainin- 
riches. Their earliest dealings were not with Eadiest " 
India Itself, but with the islands beyond their English 
first factories being at Acheen, in Sumatra, theTnll" 
and Bantam, in Java. In 1612, however, they turned 
their thoughts towards India itself, and built a factory at 
Surat. And mi6i5 Sir Thomas Roe was sent to Agra 
to seek for his countrymen the good-will of Shah Jehan- 
Rhir, the Great Mogul, as the chief ruler in India was 

8o Settlement of the Constitution. 1612-1698. 

called. But it was not all smooth sailing with the Corn- 
Enmity of pany at first. The Portuguese and the Dutch, 
thePortu- ^^Jjq j^^^j „q^ ^ footlng In the Indies before 

guese and ° ° 

the Dutch. the English came, and did not wish any 
others to share in their gains, gave the Company much 
trouble. They had forts and ships of war in those 
parts, and sought to drive the English away by force. 
The English met force with force ; and for many years 
a bitter warfare was kept up. In 161 2 a Portuguese fleet 
made a bold attempt to crush the English at Surat, but 
failed. The Dutch fought longer and more doggedly ; 
and having more men and armed ships in the Indies 
than the English, got the upper hand for a time. James 
I. wanted very much to reconcile the Dutch and English 
Companies, and twice made them agree to a peace. 
But the hatred between them was long in dying out, and 
led to more than one lawless deed of bloodshed. 

4. Still the English Company not only held its own 
but found a way into other parts of India. In 1640 
it built Fort St. George (Madras) and Fort St. David on 
lands which it bought from a native prince. Next 
Charles II. gave it Bombay (1662), which had come to 
him by his marriage with a princess of Portugal. After 
the Restoration it became wonderfully pros- 
thTcom-*^ perous. But in William III.'s time it got into 
pany. trouble both at home and in India. A new 

Company was formed which claimed freedom of trade ; 
and having many friends in Parhament, seemed likely to 
destroy the old. At the same time it did something 
in India which kindled the wrath of the Great Mogul, 
Aurengzebe ; and it lost the flourishing trading settle- 
ments which it had formed at Hooghly. But in a few 
years both clouds passed away. Aurengzebe was per- 
suaded to take the Company again into favour, and 
granted it some lands on the Hooghly. There in 169S 

1702-48. Rise of the Eftglish Power in India. - 81 

The English 
in India in 

it raised Fort William, round which the present Indian 
capital, Calcutta, afterwards grew up. And, in 1702, the 
old and new Companies made up their quarrel by uniting 
themselves together. Thus quiet came, and fresh pros- 
perity along with it. 

5. In 1740 things stood thus. Each station — Fort St. 
George, Fort William, and Bombay — formed a kind of 
little state in itself, with a ruling body named 
by the Company, and a small army, partly 
Europeans and partly natives. These latter 
were called Sepoys, from the native word for soldier 
(sipahi). Money-making was still the only thought of 
the English. The notion of bringing any part of India 
under their rule seems never to have entered their heads. 
But in 175 1 they were drawn, almost in spite of them- 
selves, into the quarrels of the native princes, and were 
thus tempted to enter on a wider field of action. 

6. At this time there was a French East India Com- 
pany also, with its chief stations in the island of Mauritius 
and at Pondicherry, south of Madras. In 

1746 the Governor of Mauritius was La FrSich in" 
Bourdonnais, an able and honourable man ; ^"^*^- 
and the Governor of Pondicherry was Dupleix, also a 
man of great ability, but ambitious and vain. As war 
was then going on between England and France, La 
Bourdonnais sailed with 3,000 men to Madras, which 
being unable to withstand his greater force, surrendered 
to him. The Frenchman promised to give back the 
place to the English when they had paid him a large 
sum of money. But Dupleix claimed Madras as his con- 
quest ; and when La Bourdonnais sailed away he not 
only kept tjie place, but laid siege to Fort St. David. 
From Fort St. David he was frightened away by the 
coming of a new force from England. In 1748 the war 
in Europe ceased, and Madras again became English. 
E.H. G 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1748-51. 

7. But peace with the English brought no rest to 
Dupleix. The Empire of the Great Mogul was now fast 
Dupleix-s breaking up ; each native ruler was as good 
designs. ^s independent in the lands under his govern- 
ment ; and Dupleix thought that he might, by mixing 
himself up in their affairs, make himself the greatest man 
in Southern India. He was very successful for a time. 
He pulled down one Nabob of Arcot and set up another ; 
he pulled down the Viceroy of the Deccan — the Nizam, 
as he was called — and set up another in his place. The 
rule of South- Eastern India from the river Kistna to 
Cape Comorin was put into Dupleix's hands ; his will 
was law among thirty millions of people. 

8. At this state of affairs the Enghsh in Madras got 
afraid of being driven out of the country altogether, and 
The English Sent a few hundred men to help Mahommed 
interfere. ^1^ gon of the slain Nabob, who still held out 
in Trichinopoly. But these men were shamefully beaten, 
and shut up with their ally in Trichinopoly. It was just 
Robert at this time that Robert Clive, a young man of 
Ciive, noble daring, yet wary and cool-headed, came 
d. 1774. forward to take the lead among the English. 
He was the son of a Shropshire gentleman, had been 
first % clerk in the Company's service, then an officer, 
and then a clerk again. He was now put at the head of 
500 men, of whom but 200 were Europeans, and in August 
Ciive's early 175 1 marched Straight upon Arcot, the chief 
successes. town of the Camatic. Arcot fell w^ithout strik- 
ing a blow ; and Clive at once strengthened the walls and 
got all things ready for a siege. Ten thousand men soon 
closed round Arcot ; but for fifty days Clive kept them at 
bay. In November the besiegers tried to storm the place, 
but were utterly defeated, and gave up the siege. A body 
of Mahrattas, which had been hired to fight for Mahommed 
Ali, then coming up, Clive went in search of the retreating 

1751-56. Rise of the Ejiglish Power in India. 83 

army, overtook it at Arnee, and beat it thoroughly. Clive 
then went on from success to success ; the siege of Trichi- 
nopoly was raised, and Mahommed Ali was made Nabob 
of Arcot. Dupleix worked hard to undo the effect of 
Ciive's daring deeds, but in vain. The upshot of the 
strife was that Dupleix was recalled to France, and a 
peace favourable to the English was made in 1754. The 
year before this, however, Clive had fallen into ill-health, 
and gone back to England. 

9. In 1756 CHve came back to India as governor of 
Fort St. David. About the same time a dreadful misfor- 
tune befell the English in Bengal. The young The Black 
Nabob of Bengal, Surajah Dowlah, was jeal- Calcutta 
ous of the prosperity of the strangers who had 1756. 
settled on his soil, and, in 1756, led an army to take 
and rob Calcutta. The English governor and the chief 
officer ran away ; and the small garrison had to give up 
the place. Then an awful deed was done by the Nabob's 
officers. They thrust their 146 prisoners, one of whom 
was a woman, into the narrow guard-room of the fort, 
called the Black Hole, in which hardly a score of people 
could breathe freely. Stifled for want of air they shrieked 
to be let out ; but the men on guard were afraid to do 
this without an order from the Nabob ; and the Nabob 
was asleep, and no one dared to wake him. They were 
therefore kept in all night. The scene was horrible; 
the prisoners trampled on one another in their agony ; 
some died at once; some went mad. Next morning, 
when the doors were opened, 123 were corpses. Yet the 
hard heart of the Nabob was untouched ; he put some of 
the few survivors in chains, and took Calcutta to himselfi 
But in some months Clive was sent from Madras with 
2^4.00 men. He soon won back Calcutta from the 
Nabob's soldiers ; and when the Nabob came down on 
the place with a mighty host, Clive struck such fear into 

G 2 


Settleme7it of the Co7istitution. 1757. 

him by a march which he made through his camp that the 
Nabob was glad to agree to a peace. 

10. This peace lasted only a short time. The Nabob 
soon came to hate and dread the English more than 
ever ; and Clive, thinking there would be no safety for 
his countrymen so long as Surajah Dowlah was lord of 
Bengal, made a plot for his overthrow. Meer Jaffier, his 
chief general, was to be made nabob in his room. In 
^^ j^^ this affair Clive stooped to do a very shameful 
agal^s^ thing. Omichund, a Hindoo merchant, who 
Dowiah. had been taken into the plot, threatened to 
»757- ' tell Surajah Dowlah of it unless he was pro- 

mised 300,000/. in the treaty made by the persons en- 
gaged in the design. To quiet Omichund, Clive caused 
a false copy of the treaty to be drawn up ; and when 
Admiral Watson would not sign this, Clive had his name 
put to it by another man. In this, which was shown to 
Omichund, the promise of 300,000/. was made to the 
Hindoo, but there was not a word about the money in 
the true treaty. Clive marched at the head of 3,000 men 
towards Moorshedabad, the chief town of Bengal. At 
Plassey he met the Nabob's army, 50,000 strong, led by 
Battle of the Nabob himself Here took place the first 
Plassey, ^reat battle fought by the English in India. 

Tune ix ^ o ^ 

1757. '' The Nabob's army broke almost at once 

before the onset of dive's little band, and rushed wildly 
from the field. Surajah Dowlah fled far away, but 
was caught, brought before Meer Jaffier, and slain in 
prison. Clive went on to Moorshedabad, and there set 
up Meer Jaffier as nabob of Bengal. Then Omichund 
was told of the trick that had been played upon him. 
The shock was so great that he became an idiot, and soon 
afterwards died. The new nabob granted the EngUsh 
the lordship of a wide tract of land as the reward of their 
services to him. 


1757-61. Rise of the English Power in India. 85 

11. Clive's second stay in India lasted three years 
longer. He was not idle during this time. He put to 
flight the army of the Great Mogul's eldest son cilve's 
from before Patna. He destroyed a Dutch ^l^^^^^ 
fleet and army which were on their way up 1757-60. 
the Hooghly to Chinsurah, a Dutch station, because he 
believed they had been sent to work evil to his country- 
men. He never faltered, and everything he put his 
hand to prospered. Early in 1760 he sailed home, and 
was at once made an Irish peer as Lord Clive, and got a 
seat among the Commons. 

12. Whilst Clive was busy in Bengal, the English at 
Madras were in serious danger. Count Lally ToUendal, 
a brave and skilful but rather fiery general, Laiiy 
had been sent out from France with 1,200 i^dll^xjsS- 
trained soldiers to strengthen the French at 1761. 
Pondicherry. In 1758 he laid siege to Fort St. David, 
took it and levelled it to the ground. Next he went 
against Madras itself ; but after trying every means he 
could think of to win the place, he had to give up his 
design and march away. In 1760 he was End of 
overthrown by Eyre Coote, a famous English }j^^^}-^^ 
soldier, at Wandewash. Next year Pondi- i"dia, 1761. 
cherry was taken by the English. With the fall of 
Pondicherry the French power in India came to an end. 
It was now clear that the English were to be masters of 
India, if India was to have foreign masters. 






I. In October 1760 George II. suddenly died, and his 
eldest grandson became king as George III. The new 
king was twenty-two years old ; and his character was 
in many ways unlike that of the earlier kings of his line. 
He was thoroughly English in feeling as in birth ; he 
had much good sense ; he was fully alive to 
Kingfijei his duties as a king, and strove to fulfil them 
1820.' faithfully ; and he had always a warm desire 

to do good to his people. He had also high courage and 
spirit. Perhaps his most marked quality was his unflinch- 
ing pursuit of any end that he had once set before him. 
His life was pure, and his tastes were homely. 
oMeOTge But his powers of mind were not great ; his 
i^^- understanding was narrow and untrained ; 

and he had little knowledge. Eleven months after his 
accession he married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strehtz, 
a lady like-minded with himself Queen Charlotte 
became the mother of many children, and lived until 


2. George III.'s coming to the throne wrought great 
changes, but not at once. The Jacobites and High 
Pitt's Min- Tories indeed, who had held aloof in dislike 
istry still Qj. enmity from the first two Georges, saw in 
office.'" George III. a native king to whom they could 

be loyal, and crowded to his Court. The Earl of Bute, 


X761. First Ten Years of George I I lis Reign. "^J 

who had hitherto been his great friend and counsellor, 
was made one of the Secretaries of State ; and there 
were some other little signs that a new order of things 
was at hand. But the Ministry of William Pitt was still 
kept in power. The whole management of the war and 
of foreign affairs was still left to him. 

3. But in October Pitt withdrew from office, because 
his advice to make war at once upon Spain was not fol- 
lowed ; and the king straightway struck into -phe King 
a new path. Taking as his guide John Stuart, enters upon 
Earl of Bute, he set to work to make himself course, 
king in reality. For almost fifty years the '^Si- 
King of England had been helpless in the hands of the 
great Whig houses. The Constitution still gave him a 
large measure of power ; but the heads of these houses 
had come to look upon this power as their own. The 
king could not withhold from them anything they 
were firmly bent on having ; for everything now hung 
on the vote of the Commons, and the Whig leaders had 
the means of getting this vote whenever they wished. 
As George II. had once said, ' in England the Ministers 
were king ; ' and these must be taken from the ranks of 
the great Whig lords and of those whom these lords 
favoured. But George III. made it the grand purpose 
of his life to wrest from the Whig lords the foremost 
place in the State. Thus began a struggle that lasted 
for many years, in which George had his own way in the 


4. One or two things make this fight for power unlike 
other struggles of the same kind in our history, (t.) It 
was not a strife between the king and the -^^^^^^ 
people, but between the king and a few men of the 
of vast influence. The Revolution Settlement struggle. 
had left to the king a fair share of power ; he could 
declare war ; make peace ; call together and send away 

88 Settlement of the Constitution, 1762. 

parliaments ; bestow honours, dignities, and every kind 
of appointment in Church and State at his pleasure ; 
and do many other things which made people look up 
to him with reverence, and be glad to win his favour. 
George III. now raised the question — was all this power 
to be used by the king himself or by the Whig 
houses ? George strained every nerve to make this 
power the king's, and his alone. He called himself a 
Whig of the Revolution, for he wanted things brought 
back to what they had been in 1690. (2.) The kings of 
former days had sought to work their will in spite of the 
Commons ; but George sought to work his will throtigh 
the Commons. To gain his ends he used every means he 
could think of to get members of Parliament to vote as 
he wished. And it was only by mtmbers of Parliament 
voting as he wished that he was able to gain his ends. 
This, then, is the meaning of the struggle— George was 
resolved that his will should be of some account in the 
ruling of the country, and sought to make the working of 
the Constitution such as the Revolution had made it. 

5. The battle began in earnest in May 1762, when 
Newcastle was forced to resign his post. Bute, who had 
Bute Prime ^"^^ some time held all the power of a Prime 
Minister, Minister, then became so in name also. The 
May, 1762. raising of such a man to so high an office in 
itself showed what the king was bent on doing. Bute 
had been in the service of the king's father, had won the 
fast friendship of the king's mother, and had been the 
tutor of the king himself. He had no better gifts of 
mind than his fellows, and no training as a statesman ; 
but he had the good-will of the king, and so was made 
chief ruler of the nation under the Crown. The first 
trial of strength between the king and the men whom he 
was eager to humble was about the making of peace with 
France in 1762. Henry Fox undertook for a large reward 



1762-65. First Ten Years of George Ill's Reig7i:8g 

to get a vote in its favour from the Commons. He fulfilled 
his promise thoroughly. Only 65 of the Commons 
voted against the Peace, whilst 319 voted for it. George 
now felt himself to be indeed King of Eng- 
land. But the wrath of the people at these signs, 
doings showed itself so plainly that Bute got ^P"'' *^^3' 
frightened and threw up his office. 

6. George Grenville, whose sister was Pitt's wife, was 
then placed at the head of affairs. It was thought that 
Grenville would not only carry out the king's Grenville, 
wishes, but would also be willing to follow Minster, 
Bute's guidance. But Grenville complained 1763-65- 

so much to George about Bute's influence that George 
soon became anxious to get rid of him. There were, 
however, few statesmen willing to be the king's min- 
isters on the king's terms. George made several at- 
tempts to win over Pitt to form a new Ministry ; but 
they all fell through. At last in 1765 the King's dislike of 
Grenville overcame his dislike of the Whig lords ; and 
a Ministry of the old kind, with the Marquis of Rocking- 
ham as its leader, came into office. 

7. Englishmen will long remember Grenville's Min- 
istry for two causes, (i.) It began and carried on a 
legal persecution of John Wilkes, a member 

of Parliament who had written against the 'general 
Government in a paper called the ^ North ^^'^'^'^^'^'s. 
Briton.' Wilkes was seized along with several others on 
a ^ general warrant,' that is, a warrant in which no per- 
sons were named, but which simply empowered the 
king's officers to arrest those that had done a certain 
thing supposed to be unlawful. The Court of Common 
Pleas released Wilkes because no one had a right to 
arrest a member of Parliament for libel. There was 
much excitement throughout the country, and Wilkes 
became very popular. He soon, however, got into 


Settlement of the Co?tstitutio7i, 1765-66. 

trouble again, was wounded in a duel, fled to France^ 
and was outlawed. But Chief Justice Pratt, afterwards 
Lord Camden, gave a solemn judgment against the law- 
fulness of general warrants ; and they have 
can Stamp never been used since. (2.) Grenville carried 
^^' through Parliament the law which first stirred 

up a strong ill-feeling in the American colonies against 
England.^ This was an Act for raising a tax from the 
Americans by means of a duty on stamped paper. . 

8. Rockingham's Ministry lasted no longer than a 
year. The king did not like it, and kept it only until he 
could get a body of ministers more to his mind. It lived 
long enough, however, to do away with the American 
Stamp Act, which had caused a general outburst of 
angry feeling in America, and indeed could not be 
Rocking- enforced.- But the king looked coldly on this 
MiUisferr^ Ministry ; and the Kmg's Friends, as those 
1765-6. members in the Commons were called who 
were always ready to vote as the King bade them, took 
the side opposed to it. The King, moreover, vvas at last 
able to make an arrangement with Pitt. Rockingham 
was dismissed, and Pitt, who was now created Earl of 
Chatham, took his place. 

9. Pitt's second Ministry was as great a failure as his 
first had been a success. For this there were several 
Pitt's reasons. He had lost the love of the people 
Innfsfry, ^y becoming a peer. He had undertaken to 
1766-8. break up parties — a task which he found to 
be impossible. He had separated himself from his old 
Whig friends, and found himself with no other followers 
than the King's Friends, who looked more to the King 
than to him. But there was a sadder cause still. Early 

* See Epoch VII., p, 6. 
2 See Epoch VII., p. 7. 

1768. First Ten Years of George I IIJs Reign. 91 

in 1767 a strange disease laid hold upon him ; his mind 
seems to have given way ; and for eighteen months he 
was utterly helpless, being unable to take the slightest 
part in the management of affairs. During this time 
everything went wrong, for the Duke of Grafton, Prime 
Minister in name, was too weak to hold in check the 
other ministers. Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, got Parliament to agree to a bill laying 
duties on tea and other goods imported to America ; ^ and 
thus the wound which the repeal of the Stamp Act had 
almost healed vvas torn open anew. In 1768 Chatham's 
health of mind came back to him ; but the first use he 
made of it was to give up his place in the Ministry. 

10. Grafton stayed in office for some time longer. 
During this the King was making good way towards the 
object he was seeking after, for neither Grafton nor 
Lord North, whom the death of Charles Townshend had 
made Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, cared to 
thwart him. The noisiest question this Min- 
istry had to deal with was one that arose out Ministry, 
of the election of Wilkes to Parliament. In ^768-70. 
1768 Wilkes had returned from Paris and been chosen 
one of the members for Middlesex. But he was sent to 
gaol for two years in punishment of the libels 
he had written. Whilst in gaol he wrote a the rights 
letter which the Commons regarded as a libel of electors. 
on the Secretary of State, Lord Weymouth. They 
therefore expelled Wilkes from their House. Middlesex 
again elected him. A second time the Commons ex- 
pelled him. Middlesex elected him a third time. But 
on his being expelled a third time, another man, one 
Colonel Luttreil, stood for Middlesex ; and, though three 
times as many votes were given for Wilkes, the Commons 
took Luttreil as their member. Many people thought 

1 See Epoch VII., p. 7. 


Settlement of the ConstitiUion, 

a gross 

1 7 7 1 . George III, and L ord North. 


that the Commons in taking this course did 
wrong to the electors. 

In 1770 Grafton resigned, and Lord North at once be- 
came the chief of a new Ministry. 



I. Lord North was the eldest son of the Earl of 
Guildford. He was a very good-humoured, even-tem- 
Lord North, pared man ; it was almost impossible to make 
MiSster ^^^ angry. To most people his Ministry at 
r77o-82. ' first seemed very weak and not likely to live 
long. Yet it lived for twelve years. Many things worked 
together to give it this unusual length of life. The 
King's Friends were hearty in upholding it. The King 
found in Lord North a Minister to his mind, and used 
his power and influence to the uttermost to keep him in 
office. He took pains to find out how each 
^u^rs^o?* member of Parliament voted, and gave or 
action. withheld his favours according as he voted for 

or against Lord North. Then the old Tory party had 
come together again, and, true to its principles, held to the 
man whom the king delighted to honour. Lastly, the 
Whigs had got disunited, some looking to Chatham, 
others to Rockingham as their leader. And George, 
who longed to do away with party-government, now and 
then gave office to a Whig of mark who was willing to 
break with his party. 

2. The king had now fairly got the upper hand ; 
during these twelve years he was in every way the real 
ruler of the nation. He and Lord North thought alike 



about the rights of the people and the rights of the king, 
for Lord North was a stout Tory. Moreover, George 
was a man of masterful will, Lord North was of an easy, 
yielding temper, and did little more than carry out the 
King's wishes. The bulk of the Commons cheerfully 
agreed to everything that the ministers laid before 


3. Yet in 1771 the Commons foolishly thrust them- 
selves into a quarrel which ended in a way that, in the 
long run, weakened the king's power, and helped forward 
great changes in Parliament itself. At this time men 
outside Parliament had not the means which they have 
now of easily learning what members said in their 
debates. Neither the Lords nor the Commons would 
let anyone publish in an open way any account of their 
debates. In 1771 certain newspapers began to give to 
the world reports of speeches in Parliament without dis- 
guise. The Commons grew angry, and called upon the 
printers to come before them and answer for what they 
had done. One or two of the printers thus summoned 
would not come, and an officer of the House 
was sent to arrest them. But this officer was 
himself seized and brought before the Lord 
Mayor on a charge of having tried to arrest a 
citizen of London without a lawful warrant. 
The Lord Mayor ordered him to be sent to prison. In 
this way the House of Commons and the City of London 
got into a bitter dispute, in the course of which the 
Lord Mayor was sent to the Tower. But the men of 
London showed so dangerous a temper, that the Com- 
mons took care never to bring on themselves a similar 
trouble again. Henceforth newspapers have been al- 
lowed to publish as full reports of Parliamentary debates 
as they can get. 

4. Statesmen had now begun to watch the growth of 

ary debates 
first allowed 
to be 

94 Settlement of (he Constitution, 1760-65 . 

English power in India with some interest ; and a feel- 
^ ^^^ ing was spreading that the men who were at 
EngTish° the head of Enghsh affairs in that land had 
inlia' '" often been guilty of wrongful deeds. After 
1760-4. 1760 the onward course of the Enghsh in 

India had gone on unchecked. In 1763 the Council of 
Calcutta, who had shortly before set aside Meer Jaffier, 
and made Meer Cossim nabob of Bengal in his place, 
took offence at Meer Cossim, and sent an army to over- 
throw him also. He was overthrown, and Meer Jaffier 
became nabob once more. But this high-handed way of 
dealing with an Indian prince was very displeasing to 
other Indian princes; and in 1764 the Great Mogul 
himself, Shah Alum, and his Vizier, the 
Buxir^ more powerful nabob of Oude, Sujah Dowlah, 
1764. ' marched a force of 50,000 men against the 

meddling strangers. At Buxar this force was met, and 
shamefully routed by 8,000 Sepoys and 1,200 Europeans, 
led by Major Hector Munro. Next day Shah Alum, glad 
to free himself from the control of his Vizier, slipped into 
Munro's camp, and agreed to a treaty which placed in 
the hands of the Company the rule of still more Indian 


5. But by this time the misconduct of the Company's 
servants had reached such a height, and the Company's 
dive's last affairs had fallen into such disorder, that in 
1765 Lord Clive had to go out a third time to 
try and set things right. A great fear fell 
upon the native princes when they heard that Clive was 
again in India ; Sujah Dowlah at once yielded himself 
up, and the Great Mogul was ready to do anything the 
English liked. Clive gave back to Sujah Dowlah the 
greater part of Oude, whilst he got the Great Mogul to 
make over to the Company, in return for a yearly rent of 
260,000/., the rule of Bengal, Orissa, and Bahar. In this 

visit to 




1765. George III, and Lord North. 95 

way the English in India became lords of a region larger 
than England itself. Clive found his own countrymen 

much harder to deal with. They were loth to give up 
trading on their own account and taking gifts from the 

q6 Scttlevicnt of the Constitution. 1765-74. 

natives, by which they were growing very rich. The 
arm 'which lay at Monghir, mutinied. But Chve stood 
fear essly to his purpose ; the mutmy at Mongh.r was 
put down with a strong hand, and every man m the 
pay of the Company had to bow to Chve's wdl. Late 
^1766 ill-health again forced Clive to return to 

^"?ciive's reforms did not at once work all the good 
expected from them. In .767 the English at Madras 
!. ^ ; , were drawn into a costly war with Hyder Ah, 
SftelfTht the Rajah of Mysore, the most dangerous 
l^r' foe they had yet encountered ; and after two 
vears' fi-hting they had to make a peace they 
Ta^ed nothing ; and in 1770 a dreadful famme carried 
off a third of the people of Bengal. The Company sank 
d!ep J and deeper into distress, and Parliament felt 
Jound to take steps to lessen this evil state of things 
After certain members of the Commons, who had been 
^med to look into the Company's affairs had gn^en m 
their report. Parliament passed the Regula- 
TheRegu- • it brought in by Lord North. Ihis 
"^ ^" law set up a new court at Calcutta, called the 
Supreme Court, made the Governor of Bengal-who then 
happened to be Warren Hastings-Governor-General of 
Tndfa and named a council of four to advise this official 
^wvhT doings The Commons also soon after 
TaLdatteof-s-eon Lord Clive ^r some of Ms 
r t / acts in India, though they allowed he had 
?S? done great things for his country-. Clive, how- 

November, ^^^^ ^^^ treatment very much to heart, 

Ind towards the end of 1774 killed himself in his London 
Lnnse He was only forty-nine years old. 

7 But it was upon America that men's eyes were 
chie'fly fixed whUe n' rth was Minister.^ In the first half 

1 See Epoch VII., pp. 8-19. 



George III. and Lord North, 



of his time of office the chief work of Parliament was to 
agree to those laws— laid before them by the King's 
trusted Minister— which led to the colonists l^.^ 
taking up arms against the mother-country ; North^s^ 
during the second half, Parliament, Lord North, with 

• • 1 Am cries. 

and the King were vainly strivmg to undo 
the mischief they had done. The Commons must share 
with George 1 11. the blame of having driven the Americans 
into war, and seen their mistake only when it was too 
late. Nor should it be forgotten that the country at 
large was of the same mind as King and Par- Public 
liament regarding the justice of their cause ; theTmer?- 
the English people, save a few deep-thinking can war. 
and far-seeing men, approved of the course that the 
King and his Minister were taking. 

8. Such, however, was not the opinion of Lord Chatham. 
He often spoke with great force and earnestness against 
the laws and doings that were angering the Americans, 
and in 1775 he brought in a bill for doing Lord 
away with all causes of quarrel between the tHe^to pre- 
two countries. This bill the Lords at once vent war. 
threw out ; but Chatham still tried hard to save his coun- 
try from herself. When the war had broken out, he told his 
countrymen that they could not ' conquer the Americans,' 
and again and again spoke warmly in favour of peace. 
When'the news of the disgrace at Saratoga in 1777 came,^ 
and France made an alliance with America, there was a 
general wish that Chatham should be made Prime 
Minister, and Lord North would gladly have given place 
to him. But the frank words that Chatham had often 
uttered regarding the management of American affairs 
had greatly displeased the king, and he was slow to see 
the necessity of taking the great statesman into his 
counsels ; and before the king could make up his mind 

1 See Epoch VII., p. 15. 
E.H. H 


Settlement of the Constitution. 1778 

1779-82. George III. and Lord North. 

Chatham was dead. In April 1778 he had, though very 
ill, gone to the House of Lords to speak against a motion 
in favour of peace ; for now that France had joined 
America, Chatham would not hear of peace ; he had 
spoken against the motion, and when rising to 
S^May speak a second time had fallen back in a fit- 
II. 1778. Five weeks later he died. Lord North, eager 

as he was to leave his post, was forced to stay. If he, 
had gone, the heads of tne Whig houses must have come 
into power ; and the king said, ' I would rather lose the 
crown I wear than bear the ignominy of possessing it 
under their shackles.' 

9. Yet Lord North had no easy task. A group of 
very able men, small in number, but great in gifts of 
The Oppo- genius and power of speech, opposed him in 
sition. the Commons and gave him no rest. Of 

these the deepest thinker and speaker was Edmund 
Burke, an Irishman, who had been brought into Parlia- 
ment by Lord Rockingham, and gained a foremost place 
Edmund in the ranks of the Whigs by sheer force of 
?"^^^^ intellect. Burke wrote as well as spoke 

d! 1797! powerfully ; indeed he is believed to be our 

greatest political writer. The greatest speaker of the 
group was Charles James Fox, a younger son of Henry 
Charles Fox. At hrst Fox had been a Tory, and been 
James Fox, jj^ ^ff^^e for some ycars under Lord North ; 

b. i74y» 

d. 1806. but he changed his views as time went on, 

became a Whig, and ere long took the place of Whig 
leader in the Commons. By watchful care he made 
himself the most skilful and telling Parliamentary speaker 
of the day. Other Whigs of mark were Colonel Barre 
and Mr. Dunning. 

10. Session after session these men withstood Lord 
North in every way they could think of. They spoke 
strongly and boldly against everything the Minister did, 


warned him of the fatal course he was taking in taxing 
and then trying to conquer the Americans, and frankly 
said that they thought the Americans right in resistino- 
the armies of England. They were nearly always beaten 
by large majorities, but they were not disheartened, and 
never ceased from their attacks on the Minister. The 
thing they were most bitter against was the Economic 
great and growing power of the kinor. To cut ^^^^o'"'" 

A^ iX.- ^ ^ • , ^ movement, 

down this power they hit upon a plan for les- 1779-82. 

sening the king's influence, which they named Economic 
Reform, and strove zealously to get Parliament to approve 
of it. It was Burke who thought out, and was most 
eager in pushing forward, this plan. It sought to do 
away with all useless offices, to bring down the pension 
list to a fixed sum, 60,000/. a year— in fact to make the 
work of ruling the nation less costly. But its grand ^ 
aim was to weaken the king's influence; most of the 
useless offices were in the king's household ; many of 
the men who held them sat among the Commons, and 
readily voted as their master wished. A brief sentence 
states the whole evil which Burke wanted to destroy— 
'The king's turnspit was a member of Parliament.' 
Efforts were made to carry this plan through Parliament 
from time to time, but they all failed so long as Lord 
North was Prime Minister. 

1 1. But in March 1782, owing to the ill-success of the 
English arms in America,^ the Commons began to show 
signs of turning against Lord North ; and the Lord North 
king at last consented to let him go. Once 
more George had to fall back on the Whig 
houses, and to take Lord Rockingham a's 
Minister. Still he was able to keep a high 
place for at least one of his friends ; Lord Thurlow re- 
mained Chancellor. Fox was one of the Secretaries of 

^ See Epoch VII., p. 18. 

ham Prime 

lOO Settlement of the Constitution. .782-S3. 

State and Burke Paymaster of the Forces. This 
M^ni^trv lasted but a few months, for Rockmgham died 
Mmistr> lastea uui enough, however, to 

in the J J ^^^fj^^^ol^^ i^io.r.. This 
carry a Pa" of » ^i^"^^,,,^, offices, and cut down 
X. Tent: li:trbut'tt :.. far from doin, aU that had 

'^^ta'ToSham was no sooner Jea^tb-an^t^^^^^^^^^^^ 

r: °?" wi rad%:'r r Sde?of fhe 'c^ i 

l';rr Min. Whigs after Chatham's death, and w,th h,s 
i's"' J"'^'- friends had taken office under Lord Rockmg- 
T' Rnt now the king gave the first place to the 
v'",- of Shelburne and Fox, Burke, and the other 
Sdfof'SSan. resigned ^-a body, and became 
thf. enemies of the new Ministry. They did worse , they 
took th^ a al step of uniting themselves with the party 
of Ae man a<.ainst whom they had fought so long and 
b t ter y Lord°North. This conduct brought dcnvn upon 
them the wrath both of king and people, and led, after a 

hon struggle, to their utter o-'^^f Fo.lndVonh 
the ' Coahtion,' as the combined party of Fox and JNortn 
*' wa^ called, outvoted Shelburne on a quest on 

The'Coall- ^ j p-gx had himself set in mot,on-the 
l^.^F^r making of peace.' Shelburne had to retire 
Dec. .783. ^^ then forced the king to take them as 
his ministers ; and George for nearly a je-'-^a^ to 
^cten to the counsels of men whom he hated. He made 
no secret of his enmity to them, and thwarted them by 
Trtm ans in his power. Yet ^e two statesmen had 
mo^ of the Commons at their command, and the king 
ivas helpless in their hands. But in December 1783 he 
Wt that he could bear the yoke no longer ; and when an 
?ndia Bill of Fox's, which the Commons had approved of 

1 See Epoch VII., p. 22. 


Geovire II L and Lord NortJi. 


went up to the Lords, the king let it be known that he 
would look on every lord who voted for it as his enemy. 
The Lords therefore threw out the bill ; and the king 
not only turned away his hated ministers, but boldly 
offered the post of Prime Minister to WilHam Pitt, a 
younger son of Lord Chathams, then only twenty-four 
years old. Pitt, with even greater boldness, accepted the 
king's offer (December 1783)- 

13. For three months the new Minister had to hold 
his place against a House of Commons that promptly 
voted against him on every question. Pitt william 
was beaten over and over again ; the ' Coali- Pjj^^^^^j;"^ 
tion ' strained every nerve to drive him from i^ecember, 
office. But Pitt manfully stood his ground. '^Ss- 
A strong feeling against Fox and North was setting in 
throughout the country, and Pitt was resolved to wait 
until this feeling had reached its height. Late in 
March 1784 he saw that the proper time had come, 
and asked the king to dissolve Parliament. The king 
did so ; and in the general election which followed, by 
far the greater number of members chosen ^,^^^^^j 
were pledged to give their votes to Pitt. The election of 
king had won ; the election of 1784 gave the '7^^- 
Tories the rule of the country for almost fifty years. 

When we look closely at the ninety-five years of 
English history which we have just passed through, side 
:bv side with the times which go before, the 
thing that we see most clearly is this — the 
House of Commons has now come to be all-important in 
the State. But when we look at the history of these 
same years side by side with the times that come after, 
the thing that strikes us most is— the House of Commons 


Settlciuent of the ConstiUition. 

is not yet a body that has a mind of its own and can. 
act for itself. Owing to the way in which most of its. 
members are chosen, it willingly puts itself into the 
hands of others, and gives them its power to use as they 
wish. At one time some powerful men among the 
nobility manage to bind together their friends among the 
Commons, and through these to make and unmake the 
king's Ministries at their pleasure. At another tmie a 
resolute king, by bringing into play the means still left 
in his power, can win over most of the Commons to his 
side, and carry out his will in every part of the State. 
It is clear, however, that any great change in the way of 
choosing men to sit in Parliament might take away from 
the king and the great folk the power of getting any 
kind of vote they want from the Commons, and might 
thus aUer very much the manner of ruling the people. 
Such a change has since come, as will be told in a later 
Avork in this series. 

But for a hundred years the people were pretty well 
satisfied with the order of things they lived under, and 
desired no change. Many men were growing rich ; trade 
was spreading swiftly ; there was a rude plenty among 
the tillers of the soil, and there was little complaining. 
And there is much in the history of this time for English- 
men to be proud of. It is true, they lost the American 
colonies of their own planting ; but, on the other hand, 
they twice overcame in war the most warlike European 
power, wrested from this same power its great American 
colonies, crushed its strength in India, and began build- 
ing up in that country a grand empire for themselves. 




A DDISON, Joseph, 44 
^ Amherst, General, 73, 76 
Anne, Queen, 25, 26, 28, 31-47 
Anson, Commodore, 60 ; Lord, &9 
Arcot, Nabob of, 82 
Arg^'le, Earl of, 9 
Argyle, Duke of, 49 
Atterbur>% Francis, 

Rochester, 56 
Aurengzebe, 80 

Bishop of 

BARRE, Colonel, 98 ^ , , 
Bentinck, Earl of Portland, 25 
Boscawen, Admiral, 77 
Boufflers, Marshal, 35 
Braddock, General, 71 
Burke, Edmund, 98, 99 
Bute, Earl of, 78, 87, 89 
Byng, Sir George, 52 
Byng, Admiral, son, 68 

PAMDEN, Lord, 90 
^ Cameron, Richard, 10 
Campbell of Glenlyon, Captain, 

Carpenter, General, 50 

Carteret, Lord, 61 ; Earl Granville. 

Charles IL, King of England, 4 
Charles IL, King of Spain, 27, 28, 

Charles IIL, King of Spain, 77 
Charles, the Archduke. 29, 30. 

Emperor, 45. 52, 6.3 
Charles Edward, Prince, 65, 67 
Charles, Elector of Bavaria, 63; 

Emperor, 64 
Charlotte, Queen, 86 
Cleland, William Colonel, 10 


Clive, Robert, 82, 83, 84 ; Lord 85 

Conflans, Admiral, 77 

Coote, Eyre, 85 

Cope, Sir John, 65 

Cumberland, William, Duke of, 64. 

67, 72 


ALRYMPLE, Sir John, n 
Danby, Earl of, 4, 23 
Dauphin, the, 28, 20, 30 
Derwentwater, Earl of, 49 
Devonshire, Duke of, 69 
Dunning, Mr., 98 ^ „ ,. , 
Dupleix, Governor of Pondicherry, 

81, 82 

ELIZABETH, Queen, 24, 79 
Elizabeth of Bohemia, 25 
Eugene of Savoy, Prince, 34, 35 

FERDINAND of Brunswick, 
Duke, 72, 73, 75, 77 
Forster, Mr., 49 
Fox, Henr>', 68, 88 
Fox, Charles James, son, 98, 99, 100 
Frederick, the Palsgrave, 26 
Frederick IL, King of Prussia, the 

Great, 63, 71 
Freeman, Mrs., 32 

C ALWAY, Earl of, 37 ^ . 
^^ George of Denmark, Prince, 32 
George I., King, 47-57 
George IL, King, son, 57-78, 87 
George IIL, King, grandson, 76, 


Index of Persons. 

Index of Persons. 




Ginkell, General, i 
Gloucester, Duke of, 25 
Godolphin, Lord, 33, 42, 4^ 
Grafton, Duke of, 91, 92 
Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount 

Dundee, 8, 9, 10 
Grammont, Duke of, 63 
Granby, Marquis of, 74 
Grenvllle, George, 89 
Guildford, Earl of, 92 

HAMILTON, Richard, 13 
Hardwicke, Lord, 61 
Harley, Robert, 43 ; Earl of Oxford, 

43> 45. 46, 4? 
Hastings, Warren, 96 
Hawke, Admiral, 77 
Hawley, General, 67 
Hyder Ali, 96 

cy ACQ BITES, the, 5 

J James L, King, 70, 80 

James IL, King, 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 

T4, 17, 18, 24, 27, 31, 32 
James Edward, the Pretender, 27, 

46, 48, 49, 51. 57. 64 
Jenkins, Robert, 59 
Joseph, Electoral Prince of Bavaria, 

28, 29 

TZENMURE, Eari of, 49, 50 
■^^ Kilmarnock, Earl of, 67 

-■-^ of ^L1uritius, 81 
Lally Tollendal, Count, 85 
Leopold, Emperor, 28, 29 
Lewis XIV., King of France, 5, 14, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 26-31, 39, 45, 47. 

Lewis XV., Kmg of France, great- 
grandson, 51, 59 
Lovat, Lord, 67 
Luttrell, Colonel, 91 
Luxemburg, Marshal, 19 

TV/TAC IAN, of Glencoe, 11 
^^^ Mackay, Hugh, General, 9 
Mahommed Ali, 82 
Mar, Earl of, 49, 50 
Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary, 
63, 64 

Marlborough, Duke of, 32, 33, 34, 

35, 40, 42. 46 
Marlborough, Duchess of, wife, 32, 

Mary II. , Queen, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 

22, 25 
Maurice of Saxony, Pnnce, 64 
Meer Cossim, 94 
Meer Jafifier, 84, 94 
Mogul, the Great, 79, 80, 85 
Montague, Charles, 22 ; Earl of 

Halifax, 43 
Montcalm, Marquis of, 74-6 
Morley, Mrs., 32 
Munro, Hector, Major, 94 


EWCASTLE, Duke of, 62, 68, 

69, 88 
Nizam, the, 82 
Noailles, Marshal, 63 
Nonjurors, the, 5 

North, Lord, 92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100 
Nottingham, Earl of, 4, 23 

f^MICHUND, Hindoo merchant, 

^ 84 

Orleans, Duke of, 51 
Ormond, Duke of, 36, 48, 49 

pELHAM, Henr>% 62, 68 
•*■ Pelhams, the, 61-67 
Peterborough, Earl of, 37 
Philip, Duke of Anjou, 30 ; Philip 
v.. King of Spain, 30, 36, 45, 46, 

5^. 52, 59 „ „ 

Pitt, William, 58, 62, 68, 69-78, 87, 

90; Earl of Chatham, 91, 97. 

Pitt, William, the younger, son, 97, 

Pulteney, William, 58 

■O OCKINGHAIM, IMarquis of, 89. 
■*^^ 90, 99, 100 

Rodney, George, Admiral, 76 
Roe, Sir Thomas, 79 
Rooke, Sir George, Admiral, 34 
Russell, Admiral, 18 

C ACHEVERELL, Henry, 42 
*^ Sackville, Lord George, 74 



■St. John, Henry, 43; Viscount 

Bolingbroke, 43, 45, 47. 4^, 49 
St. Ruth, General, 15 
Sarsfield, Patrick, General, 15 
Shah Alum, 94 
Shah Jehanghir, 79 
Shelbume, Earl of, 100 
Shrewsbury, Earl of, 4 ; Duke of, 

Somers, Lord, 23, 25, 30, 40, 43 

Sophia, Electress of Hanover, 6, 25, 

Stanhope, General, 37 ; Eari, 48, 50, 

51. 52, .53 . , , 
Steele, Sir Richard, 44 

Sujah Dowlah, 94 

Surajah Dowlah, 83, 84 

Sunderland, Earl of, 40, 51, 53 

Swift, Jonathan, Dean, 44, 56 

T^ALLARD, Marshal, 34 
■■■ Thurlow, Lord, 99 
Torrington, Earl of, 18 

Tourville, Admiral, 18 
Townshend, Lord, 48, 50. 5i. 52. 58 
Townshend, Charles, grandson, 88, 


Tyrconnel, Duke of, 13 

WENDOME, Duke of, 35 

* Victoria, Queen, 26 
Villars, Marshal, 35 

A^rALPOLE, Sir Robert, 48, 50 
51. 52, 53-60 ; Earl of Orford, 

60, 61 
Washington, George, 71 
Watson, Admiral, 84 
Weymouth, Lord, 91 
Wharton, Thomas, Lord, 40 
Wilkes, John, 89, 90, 91 
William III., King, 2-31, 33, 35. 3S, 

39, 40, 80 
Wolfe, James, General, 73, 74. 75 
Wood, William, 56 

'^m T 

r< Yc 




A BRAHAM, Heights of, 76 
■^^ Acheen, 79 
Agra, 79 

Aix-la-Chapelle, 67 
Alleghany Mountains, the, 70 
Almanza, 37 
America, 59, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74. -j- 

78, 90, 97, 09 
Arcot, 82 
Amee, 82 
Aschaffenburg, 63 
Athlone, 15 
Aughrim, 15 
Austria, 57, 68 


■*-^ Bantam, 79 
Barcelona, 37 
Bavaria, 34, 63 
Beachy Head, 18 
Belgium, 33 

Bengal, 83, 84, 85, 94, 96 
Bergen, 72 
Blair Athol, 10, 65 
Blenheim, 34 
Bombay. 80, 81 
Boyne, the, 14 
Braemar, 49 
Brandenburg, 17 
Brest, 76, 77 
Brihuega, 37 
Buxar, 94 

r'ALCUTTA, 81, 83 
^-^ Campeachy Bay, 78 
Canada, 70, 73, 74, 77, 78 
Cape Breton, 73, 78 



Carrickfergus. 14 
Carthagena, 60 
Chinsurah, 85 
Clifton, 66 
Comorin, Cape, 82 
Corryarrick, 65 
Crefeld, 73 
Culloden, 67 
Cromdale, 10 

T^ANUBE, the, 34 
■*-^ Darien, 41 

Deccan, the, 82 
Derby, 65 
Dettingen, 63 
Drogheda, 14 
Dublin, 13, 14, 15, 44 
Dunbar, 65 
Dunkeld, 10 

■*-' Empire, the, 17, 30 
Enniskillen, 13 

"PALKIRK Muir, 66 
-*■ Florida, 78 
Fontenoy, 64 
Fort Duquesne, 71, 72 
Fort St. David, 80, 81, 85 
Fort St. George, 80, 81 
Fort William, Scotland, 11 
Fort William, India, 80, 81 
Foj-le, the, 13 

France, 16, 17, 24, 33, 34, 35, 36, 50, 
57, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71. 78, 

Frankfort, 73 


Index of Places. 


pEORGIA, 70 

^^ Germany, 17, 33, 62, 72. 73 

Gibraltar, 34, 46, 57 

Glasgow, 66 

Glencoe, 11 

Glenfinnan, 65 

Hanau, 64 
Hanover, 25, 33, 57. 62, 69, 72 
Havanna, 78 
Havre, 77 

Holland, 17, =4. 5i. 63 
Hooghly, 80 
Hooghly, the, 85 


NDIA, East, 79-85, 92-96 
India, West, 78 
Indies, the, 29, 33 
Inverary, 11 
Inverness, 67 
Inverness-shire, 65 
Ireland, 13, 16, 18, 41, 56 


AVA, 7Q 


ENNEBEC, the, 70 
- Kensington, 31 
Killiecrankie, 9 
Kistna, the, 82 
Kloster-Zeven, 72 

T AGOS, 77 
■*-' La Hogue. 18 
Landen, 19 
Lille, 35 
Limerick, 15 
Lochaber, 9 
London, 42, 65, 93 
Londonderry, 13 
Lorraine, 29 
Louisburg, 73 
Louisiana, 70 

MADRAS, 80, 81, 82, 85, 95 
Madrid, 36 
Malplaquet 35 
Manilla, 78 
Mauritius, 81 
Mayn, the, 63 


ISIediterranean Sea, 33 
Mexico, Gulf of, 70 
Minden, 73 
Middlesex, 91 
Milan, 29 

Minorca, 35, 46, 63, 72, 78 
Monghir, 96 
Mons, 19 
Montreal, 77 
Montrose, 50 
Moorshedabad, 84 
Mysore, 96 

■NT AMUR, 19, 35 

^ ^ Naples, 29, 46 

Netherlands, the Spanish, 29, 33, 35, 

Newfoundland, 46 
Newtonbutler, 13 
Niagara, 76 
Nova Scotia, 71 

QHIO, the, 71 
^-^ Orissa, 94 
Osnabruck, 57 
Oude, 94 
Oudenarde, 35 

PACIFIC, the, 60 
■*■ Paita, 60 
Paris, 78 

Passaro, Cape, 52 
Patna, 85 
Perth, 50, 65 

Philippine Islands, 60, 78 
Plassey, 84 
Pondicherry, 81, 85 
Portobello, 60 
Portugal, 73, 77, 78, 80 
Preston, 40 
Preston Pans, 65 
Prussia, 17, 63, 67, 71 
Pyrenees, the, 29 

pvUEBEC, 74, 76 
\c Quiberon Bay, 77 

Rhine, the, 34, 63 


Russia, 71 
Ryswick, 19, 20 

Index of Places. 




•^ St. Lawrence, the, 74 

St. Philips, 68 

Saratoga, 97 

Savoy, 17 

Saxony, 71 

Scotland, 7-12, 41, 42, 65, 67 

Sedgemoor, 32 

Sheriffmuir, 50 

Sicily, 20, 52 

Silesia, 63, 67 

South Seas, 53, 59 

Spain, 17, 27, 29, 30, 33, 36, 52 

59. 67, 87 
Stade, 72 
Steinkirk, 19 
Stirling, 50, 66 



Sumatra, 79 
Surat, 79, 80 

nrOURNAY, 64 
•*■ Ticonderoga, 76 
Trichinopoly, 82, 83 

IJTRECHT, 37, 45, 46, 48, 51, 7S 

yiLAINE, the, 77 

• \'illa Viciosa, 37 


* ^ Weser, the, 74 
Wolfe's Ccve, 76 





h *-\ *-> .-> ,-\ / 


Nou) in course of piblication in Eight Volumes ^ each complete 

in itself 




Edited by the Rev. MANDELL CREIGHTON, M.A. 

Late Fellow and Tutor of Merton College, Oxford. 



CONQUEST. By Frederick York PcnvELL, B.A. Law 
Lecturer Ch. Ch. 
With Four Maps. 

and Historical 
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' These historical handbooks have 
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•dealing with history in the general. 
To understand with any degree of fit- 
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-epoch it must be studied by itself, on 
its own bearings, and by a due con- 
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cumstances and forces which moulded 

Lecturer Trin. Coll. Oxford. 

its character. In the volumes before 
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Epochs of English History. 

in The RISE of the PEOPLE and aKOW^^ 

of P\RT^IAMENT from the GREAi '-"%^,,j,^ rowlev. 

S^,:^:t:r With Four Maj^^P^^^^ 
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? How Parliament grew up to its 

i:;j;f4°sae»j- Scotland a,» 

iLngus" Fr-ince • and how the 

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hundrea years 4, ^-"" tlTn ^nrial 
came over the people in social 
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Sronger and some men tried 10 re- 
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towards the end of this Pmod 
divided into two parties and fought 
for different kings ; and how thelaml 
was filled with disorder and blood- 
htd The growth of the Parhament 
and the wars of the Karons the con 

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'The scheme of this treatise en- 
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tion. Markea oui uy 
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